Latest videos

Alagai Augusten
4 Views · 4 hours ago

By: Dr. Jeetendra Pande

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 21 hours ago

The TAURUS KEPD 350, standing for Target Adaptive Unitary & Dispenser Robotic Ubiquity System / Kinetic Energy Penetrating Destroyer, is a long-range cruise missile engineered to precisely target fortified positions without requiring the launching aircraft to penetrate hostile air defense territories.

Its structural design prioritizes stealth. The rectangular body, crafted from composite materials, avoids sharp interfaces, making it less perceptible to radars. Furthermore, a special radio-absorbent coating masks its presence even more. Ingeniously, the air intake channels are curved, a feature devised to hide the engine turbine from prying ground radars.

The Taurus maintains a steady subsonic speed in the vicinity of Mach 0.6-0.95. The missile's reach is nothing short of impressive, capable of engaging targets up to 310 miles (500 kilometers) away.

Once launched, the Taurus employs its Tri-tech navigation system, merging various sensors and reference databases to consistently monitor its position and adjust its trajectory.

The Taurus missile's tandem warhead, designed for Maximum Penetration and High Sophistication in Target Optimization (MEPHISTO), is tailored to decimate hard and deep-set targets.


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Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 21 hours ago

Sweden is expected to officially join NATO in the coming days or weeks, after Hungary finally gave its approval Monday – the last member to do so. As Henry Ridgwell reports, analysts say Sweden brings important capabilities to the Western defense alliance.

» Subscribe to VOA News: https://bit.ly/3KIPysi
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Voice of America (VOA) is the largest U.S. international broadcaster, providing news and information in more than 40 languages to an estimated weekly audience of 236.8 million people. VOA produces content for digital, television, and radio platforms. It is easily accessed via your mobile phone and on social media. It is also distributed by satellite, cable, FM and MW, and is carried on a network of approximately 3,000 affiliate stations.

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Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 1 day ago

I -765 Application for Employment Authorization: How to Apply for Work Permit in USA (2023 UPDATE)

Welcome to this Free Immigration Help channel. If you found this video useful, please consider supporting this channel with a Super Thanks or by joining the membership.

If you are wondering how to legally work in the US, this video may help you find your answer. In this video, I will show you how to apply for employment authorization card.

Here are the links used in this video:
I-765, Application for Employment Authorization - https://www.uscis.gov/i-765
Employment authorization form - https://www.uscis.gov/sites/de....fault/files/document
Employment authorization document application instructions - https://www.uscis.gov/sites/de....fault/files/document

Additionally, you will be able to check your EAD card status (EAD application status) on USCIS.gov.

With your EAD, you will be able to apply for social security number (social security card) and legally work in the United States.

You can ask immigration questions online either here on this video or any of the other videos on this channel and I will try to get back to you. Make sure to provide more information about your immigration case status and the application process.

Immigration process might be complicated. Hopefully, some of these videos can make it easier for you. Please keep in mind, I am not an immigration attorney and this is not an immigration advice service or immigration legal advice. I do not offer any free immigration consultation as I am not an immigration lawyer.

All of the information mentioned in this video can be checked for reference on the official USCIS.gov website.

If you are looking for a local immigration help, you can search for "free immigration help near me," as there might be some USCIS authorized free service consultants in your area or low cost immigration legal aid, also known as pro bono immigration lawyers.

Thank you for your support! God bless!

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Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 1 day ago

Small Business mentoring at SCORE San Diego

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 1 day ago

http://www.jobapplicationsonli....ne.com/target-applic A video walkthrough that show you how to use the Target site to apply for a job with Target online. Makes applying online easier.

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 1 day ago

Jumpstart your job search with these tips: https://go.indeed.com/how-to-use-indeed
Check out our Job Search Guide: https://go.indeed.com/essential-job-search-guide

When you're searching for jobs online, it can be hard to narrow in on the right role. However, there are some small steps you can take to find your ideal job faster. In this video, we explain how to narrow your search based on keywords, location, salary and company so that you can spend less time searching and more time applying. Remember, the smallest moves are sometimes the smartest.

Try these five easy tips for a better job search strategy:

1. Search for a specific job title in quotation marks: "[job title]".

2. Specify a company by typing “company: [name of company]. Learn more about how to research a company: https://go.indeed.com/how-to-research-a-company

3. Refine your search by excluding terms you don’t want in your search results: type “-[word to exclude].

4. Use the Advanced Job Search tool to narrow search results by ideal salary, distance from home and what type of job you’re looking for.

5. Save your search and set up Job Alerts. You’ll be the first to know about new job postings and your application is more likely to be seen by an employer if you apply right after the job is posted. Learn how to set up a Job Alert: https://go.indeed.com/how-to-create-job-alert

Watch more episodes of Smart & Small: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_bZi-34IFxs&list=PL6qIzGkkiXFFGIZ09uOBn4JAGYdooXxfP

Search for your next job: https://www.indeed.com/

Indeed is the world's #1 job site, with over 250 million unique visitors* every month from over 60 different countries. We provide free access to search and apply for jobs, post your resume, research companies, and compare salaries. Every day, we connect millions of people to new opportunities. On our YouTube channel, you’ll find tips and personal stories to help you take the next step in your job search.

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Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 1 day ago

Interested in finding out more about opportunities to work in IT? Learn more here: https://www.amazon.jobs/en/tea....ms/engineering-fulfi

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 1 day ago

Find and apply to jobs on Indeed, the world's #1 job site. Not sure where to start? Get expert job search tips from our Essential Job Search Guide: https://www.indeed.com/career-....advice/finding-a-job

Alagai Augusten
7 Views · 1 day ago

As a small business owner, you are an expert on your products and services. No one expects that you’re a master of web security, which is why small business websites are particularly vulnerable to an attack. With that in mind, how do you protect your small business website from lurking hackers? These cybersecurity tips for small businesses can help. Check out more The Journey content at https://bit.ly/GDTheJourney.

✅ Read about it on our blog ➜ https://bit.ly/2SY1Y9HGoDaddy

0:14 5 Cybersecurity tips for your small business
1:12 Use secure, unique passwords
3:11 Perform routine security checks
3:48 Keep your eye out for cybersecurity tips
5:08 Consider tools to safeguard your site
5:55 Install an SSL certificate right away

You can beef up your security with these five easy tips:

Use secure, unique passwords:
Some food for thought: A password with only seven alpha characters can be guessed in less than a second. Remember to always change your passwords every quarter, at the very least, to keep your website safe.

Perform routine security checks:
You need to know that an attack can come at any time, so routinely checking the security of your site is critical.

Keep your eye out for cybersecurity tips:
The world of cybersecurity is ever-changing, so it’s important to stay up to date on all cyberthreats.

Consider tools to safeguard your site:
It wouldn’t hurt to introduce you to some tools that can help you monitor and ward off cyber threats before they can even touch your small business website.

Install an SSL certificate right away:
Beyond establishing trust with your customers, an SSL certificate also establishes trust with Google. If you don’t have a secure site (which an SSL certificate ensures), Google Chrome will mark your site as “not secure,” which can affect your rankings in search results.

It’s important for you to stay in the loop, and follow new cybersecurity tips from the experts. Be sure to use unique and complex passwords, change those passwords every 3 months, perform routine security checks, back up your website regularly, consider a malware detection tool, and install an SSL certificate right away. There are many more cybersecurity tips to follow, but these five will provide you with a solid digital defense to start.

The Journey is what everyday entrepreneurs, like you, need to follow in the pursuit of online success. Our experienced GoDaddy Guides are here to take you through all the steps, both big and small, that you encounter every day.

Want to learn about more ways to grow your business? Subscribe to GoDaddy on YouTube: http://bit.ly/GoDaddy-Subscribe

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#TheJourney #Business #GoDaddy #Entrepreneur #HowtoStartaBusiness #Cyber #CyberSecurity #WebSecurity

Alagai Augusten
3 Views · 1 day ago

This is a crash course on information security for beginners. It will provide you the basics knowledge and terminology about information security.

⭐ Table of Contents ⭐
⌨️ (0:00) Introduction to Security
⌨️ (17:05) Threats, vulnerabilities and control

⭐ Credit ⭐
Course Author: Mike Murphy
License: Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)
YT: https://www.youtube.com/channe....l/UCndXB_kOP-C_KgZ2d

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Alagai Augusten
3 Views · 1 day ago

Ms.Dipali D Awasekar
Assistant Professor
Department of Information Technology
Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur.

Alagai Augusten
3 Views · 1 day ago

Ms.Dipali D Awasekar
Assistant Professor
Department of Information Technology
Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 2 days ago

The molar conductivity of electrolytes is influenced by the concentration of the solution. Here are some key points to understand the effect of concentration on molar conductivity:

1. Generally, the molar conductivity of an electrolyte decreases as the concentration increases.
2. This behavior is explained by the phenomenon of ion-ion interactions or the association of ions when the concentration increases.
3. Initially, at low concentrations, the ions are far apart from each other, resulting in minimal ion-ion interactions. This allows for higher mobility of the ions and a higher molar conductivity.
4. As the concentration increases, the ions come closer to each other, leading to a greater likelihood of ion-ion interactions or association. This hinders the mobility of the ions, reducing the molar conductivity.
5. At higher concentrations, the molar conductivity approaches a limiting value called the limiting molar conductivity (Λ°). This value represents the maximum molar conductivity attainable for the electrolyte under the given conditions.
6. The decrease in molar conductivity with increasing concentration can be described by Kohlrausch's law, which states that the molar conductivity of an electrolyte is the sum of the contributions of the individual ions in the solution.
7. In dilute solutions, where ion-ion interactions are minimal, the molar conductivity is mainly determined by the individual ion mobilities. As the concentration increases, the contributions from individual ion mobilities decrease due to increased ion-ion interactions.
8. Strong electrolytes, which undergo complete ionization in solution, show a more pronounced decrease in molar conductivity with increasing concentration compared to weak electrolytes.

In summary, as the concentration of an electrolyte increases, the molar conductivity tends to decrease due to increased ion-ion interactions or association. However, at very low concentrations, the molar conductivity is higher, indicating greater ion mobility.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 2 days ago

Video Two on organic synthesis was a live TV show highlighting key concepts in organic synthesis

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 2 days ago

- Electrode potential refers to the potential difference or voltage between an electrode and its surrounding solution/electrolyte.
- It is a measure of the tendency of an electrode to gain or lose electrons, which determines its ability to undergo oxidation or reduction reactions.
- The electrode potential is influenced by various factors, including the nature of the electrode material, concentration of ions in the solution, temperature, and pressure.
- The standard electrode potential (E°) is the electrode potential measured under standard conditions, which include a concentration of 1 mole per liter, temperature of 298 Kelvin, and atmospheric pressure of 1 bar.
- Standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) is often used as a reference electrode for measuring electrode potentials. Its electrode potential is defined as zero.
- Electrons flow from the electrode with a lower potential to the electrode with a higher potential, following the direction of the electrochemical reaction.
- The difference in electrode potentials of two electrodes is related to the cell potential (Ecell) of an electrochemical cell, which can be used to determine the spontaneity and feasibility of a redox reaction.
- A positive electrode potential indicates a tendency for reduction, while a negative electrode potential indicates a tendency for oxidation.
- Electrode potential can be measured using various techniques, such as potentiometry, voltammetry, and electrochemical cells.

Please note that these are just summarized notes. If you require more in-depth information on any specific aspect, please let me know!

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 2 days ago

The Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) is an important reference electrode used in electrochemistry. It serves as a baseline for comparing the electrode potentials of other half-reactions. The SHE consists of a platinum electrode immersed in a solution with a hydrogen gas atmosphere at a fixed pressure.

The standard reduction potential of the SHE is defined as 0.00 V at all temperatures. This means that other reduction potentials can be measured relative to the SHE. By convention, the reduction potential of the SHE is considered positive when a half-reaction has a higher potential to be reduced compared to the SHE, and negative when it has a lower potential.

The half-reaction for the SHE is the reduction of protons (H+) to hydrogen gas (H2). This reaction takes place as follows:

2H+ + 2e- -> H2

The SHE is often used in electrochemical cells as a reference electrode, with another half-reaction occurring at a different electrode. The potential difference between the SHE and the other electrode is measured to determine the half-cell potential of the other electrode.

In practical situations, it is difficult to have a true SHE. Therefore, other reference electrodes such as the silver/silver chloride electrode are commonly used instead. However, these reference electrodes are calibrated using the SHE and have their own set standard reduction potentials.

The SHE is a crucial reference in electrochemistry as it allows for the determination of the standard reduction potentials of other half-reactions and the prediction of the feasibility of redox reactions. It provides a consistent reference point for measuring and comparing electrode potentials, which helps in understanding the principles and behaviors of electrochemical processes.

Alagai Augusten
5 Views · 2 days ago

As part of our 'Introduction to coding' session, we look at what an algorithm is and why which instructions you give a computer is so important.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 2 days ago

This is a zoom recorded video that will introduce A level students to THERMOCHEMISTRY. It was created to enhance learning during the Covid-19 Lockdown. Please like and share and subscribe to our you tube channel for more such videos.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
25 Views · 3 days ago

This video looks to seek where Sin (Sine), Cos and Tan actually come from. Looking at the ratios of the sides of right angle triangles, we can notice certain patterns if we measure different right angle triangles with the same angles. Very similar to how ratios exist in circles with circumference and diameter to discover Pi.We can then make trig (trigonometry) tables for all the angles and then draw the graph of sin(x) which forms the sine wave.These trig ratios help us finding missing angles or sides in triangles by using SOHCAHTOA (SOH CAH TOA). The sine function can be obtained by taking ratios of triangle sides at different angles.Media, business and educational enquiries can be made to info@syedinstitute.comThank you for watching.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
26 Views · 3 days ago

Common terms used in electrolysis and explanation of the changes that take place during electrolysis


⁣Common Terms Used in Electrolysis:

Electrolyte: A substance that conducts electricity due to the presence of free ions. These ions can be dissolved in a solvent (like aqueous solutions) or molten.
Electrode: An electrical conductor in contact with an electrolyte. There are two types:

Anode: The positive electrode where oxidation occurs. Electrons flow out of the anode.
Cathode: The negative electrode where reduction occurs. Electrons flow into the cathode.


Electrolysis: The process of using electrical energy to drive a non-spontaneous chemical reaction. An external power source provides the energy to overcome the activation energy barrier of the reaction.
Electrolysis products: The substances formed at the electrodes during electrolysis. These products depend on the specific reaction occurring.
Electrolytic cell: A device used to carry out electrolysis, consisting of electrodes, an electrolyte, and a power source.
Changes During Electrolysis:
Electrolysis involves several key changes:

Electrical energy to chemical energy: The external power source provides electrical energy, which is converted into chemical energy to drive the non-spontaneous reaction.
Oxidation at the anode: Anions from the electrolyte lose electrons at the anode, undergoing oxidation. This can involve the electrode itself being oxidized or the oxidation of ions in the electrolyte.
Reduction at the cathode: Cations from the electrolyte gain electrons at the cathode, undergoing reduction.
Movement of ions: Ions in the electrolyte migrate towards the oppositely charged electrode to maintain electrical neutrality.
Formation of electrolysis products: The products of the oxidation and reduction reactions at the electrodes form the final electrolysis products.
Example: Electrolysis of water (H₂O):

Electrolyte: Aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl)
Anode: 2Cl⁻ → Cl₂ + 2e⁻ (Chlorine gas is produced at the anode)
Cathode: 2H₂O + 2e⁻ → H₂ + 2OH⁻ (Hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode)
Overall reaction: 2H₂O → 2H₂ + O₂ (decomposition of water)
Note: This is a simplified example. The specific reactions and products depend on the nature of the electrolyte and the applied voltage.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
27 Views · 3 days ago

Modes of conduction of substances, common terms used in electrolysis

## Modes of Conduction in Substances:

There are three main modes of conduction observed in different substances:

**1. Metallic Conduction:**

* **Description:** Involves the movement of **free electrons** within a metallic lattice. These electrons are not bound to any specific atom and can move freely throughout the metal.
* **Examples:** Metals like copper, aluminum, and silver are good conductors of electricity due to the presence of a large number of free electrons.

**2. Ionic Conduction:**

* **Description:** Occurs in **electrolytes** (molten salts or ionic solutions) where **ions** move through the solution carrying the charge.
* **Examples:** Aqueous solutions of salts like NaCl or molten salts like NaCl (liquid) conduct electricity through the movement of Na⁺ and Cl⁻ ions.

**3. Electronic Conduction in Semiconductors:**

* **Description:** Involves the movement of both **electrons** and **holes** (the absence of an electron in the valence band) in semiconductors. The conductivity can be controlled by applying external factors like doping or electric fields.
* **Examples:** Materials like silicon and germanium exhibit semiconducting behavior, where their conductivity can be tailored for various applications in electronics.

## Common Terms Used in Electrolysis:

* **Electrolyte:** A substance that conducts electricity due to the presence of free ions.
* **Electrode:** An electrical conductor that is in contact with an electrolyte.
* **Anode:** The positive electrode where oxidation occurs.
* **Cathode:** The negative electrode where reduction occurs.
* **Electrolysis:** The process of using electrical energy to drive a non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
* **Electrolysis products:** The substances formed at the electrodes during electrolysis.
* **Electrolytic cell:** A device used to carry out electrolysis, consisting of electrodes, an electrolyte, and a power source.
* **Aqueous electrolysis:** Electrolysis involving water as the electrolyte.
* **Electroplating:** The deposition of a metal onto the cathode from a metal-containing solution.
* **Electrorefining:** The purification of a metal by removing impurities that go into the solution during electrolysis.

Understanding these terms and the different modes of conduction is crucial for comprehending the principles and applications of electrolysis in various fields like electroplating, battery technology, and chemical production.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 3 days ago

This video was a live show on UBC-Star Tv in which students were introduced to the dos and donts of organic synthesis

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 3 days ago

describes distribution law of a solute between immiscible solvents and calculated examples . For A-level UACE Exams.



## Distribution Law: Understanding Solute Partitioning Between Immiscible Solvents

The **distribution law**, also known as **Nernst's partition law**, describes the **equilibrium distribution of a solute between two immiscible solvents**. In simpler terms, it explains how a solute will distribute itself between two non-mixing liquids at a constant temperature.

**Key Points:**

* **Immiscible solvents:** These are liquids that don't dissolve in each other, like oil and water.
* **Solute:** The substance that dissolves in both solvents.
* **Equilibrium:** A state where the concentration of the solute in each solvent remains constant over time, even though the molecules continue to move between the layers.

**The Law:**

The distribution law states that the **ratio of the equilibrium concentrations of a solute in two immiscible solvents is constant at a constant temperature**. This constant ratio is called the **distribution coefficient** or **partition coefficient**, denoted by **K<sub>d</sub>**.

**Mathematically:**

```
K_d = C₁ / C₂
```

where:

* C₁ is the concentration of the solute in solvent 1
* C₂ is the concentration of the solute in solvent 2

**Factors Affecting Kd:**

* **Nature of the solute:** Solutes with more affinity for one solvent will have a higher concentration in that solvent, leading to a larger Kd value.
* **Nature of the solvents:** The polarity and ability of solvents to interact with the solute influence the distribution.
* **Temperature:** Kd can change slightly with temperature, although the change is often negligible for most A-Level applications.

**Applications:**

* **Extraction:** Separating a desired compound from a mixture by selectively dissolving it in one solvent and separating the layers.
* **Chromatography:** Utilizing the differing distribution behavior of components to separate them in a mixture.
* **Understanding drug action:** Predicting how drugs distribute between different compartments in the body based on their lipophilicity (affinity for fats).

**Calculated Examples:**

**Example 1:**

A solution of benzoic acid is shaken with water and benzene. After reaching equilibrium, the concentration of benzoic acid in the benzene layer (0.1 M) is found to be ten times higher than its concentration in the water layer (0.01 M). Calculate the distribution coefficient (Kd) for benzoic acid between benzene and water.

```
K_d = C_benzene / C_water = 0.1 M / 0.01 M = 10
```

**Example 2:**

A dye has a Kd value of 5 between chloroform and water. If 10 mg of the dye is dissolved in 10 mL of chloroform, how much dye will be present in 100 mL of water after reaching equilibrium?

* We can assume the initial concentration of the dye in chloroform (C_chloroform) is 1 mg/mL (10 mg / 10 mL).
* We need to find the equilibrium concentration in water (C_water).

```
K_d = C_chloroform / C_water
5 = 1 mg/mL / C_water
C_water = 0.2 mg/mL
```

Therefore, at equilibrium, 0.2 mg/mL x 100 mL = 20 mg of the dye will be present in the water layer.

**Remember:** These are just basic examples. A-Level UACE Exams might involve more complex scenarios and calculations related to distribution law, requiring a deeper understanding of the concepts and their applications.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 3 days ago

Classification of alkylhalides (primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl halides with example.preparations of alkylhalides from alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols



## Classification of Alkyl Halides:

Alkyl halides, also known as haloalkanes, are organic compounds containing a halogen atom (F, Cl, Br, I) bonded to a saturated carbon atom. They are classified based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the carbon bearing the halogen atom:

* **Primary (1°):** One carbon atom is attached to the carbon with the halogen. (e.g., CH₃Cl - Chloromethane)
* **Secondary (2°):** Two carbon atoms are attached to the carbon with the halogen. (e.g., CH₃CH₂Cl - Chloroethane)
* **Tertiary (3°):** Three carbon atoms are attached to the carbon with the halogen. (e.g., (CH₃)₃CCl - Trichloromethane)

## Preparations of Alkyl Halides:

**1. From Alkanes:**

* **Free radical halogenation:** Reaction of alkanes with halogen molecules (Cl₂, Br₂) in the presence of light or heat. This is a non-selective method and can lead to a mixture of products. (e.g., Methane + Cl₂ -> Chloromethane, Dichloromethane, etc.)

**2. From Alkenes:**

* **Electrophilic addition of hydrogen halides (HX):** Addition of HX (HCl, HBr, HI) across the double bond of an alkene. Follows Markovnikov's rule, where the halogen atom gets attached to the more substituted carbon. (e.g., Propene + HCl -> 2-Chloropropane)

**3. From Alcohols:**

* **Reaction with hydrogen halides (HX):** Conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides by replacing the hydroxyl group (-OH) with a halogen atom. Requires a catalyst for primary and secondary alcohols, not for tertiary alcohols. (e.g., Ethanol + HCl -> Chloroethane + H₂O)
* **Reaction with thionyl chloride (SOCl₂):** Effective method for converting primary and secondary alcohols to alkyl halides. (e.g., Ethanol + SOCl₂ -> Chloroethane + SO₂ + HCl)

**Note:** The specific reaction conditions and choice of method depend on the desired alkyl halide and the starting material.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 3 days ago

Describes the chemistry of transition elements; vanadium, chromium and cobaltVanadium and its compound- characteristics of vanadium as transition element- important compound of vanadium such as vanadium pentoxide in contact process.Chromium and its compounds-properties of chromium as transition element- reaction of chromium with air, water, acids, and sodium hydroxide- half reduction equations for chromates and dichromate- inter-conversion of chromates and dichromates- isomerism in chromium (III) chloride hexahydrate, CrCl3.6H2O -hydrolysis of chromium (III) compounds- qualitative analysis of chromium (III) ionsCobalt and its compounds-properties of cobalt as a transition elementqualitative analysis of cobalt (II) ions




## Chemistry of Vanadium, Chromium, and Cobalt (A-Level Chemistry)

These three elements are all **transition metals** located in Group 5, 6, and 7 of the periodic table, respectively. They share some general properties of transition metals, including:

* **Variable oxidation states:** They can exhibit multiple oxidation states due to the availability of electrons in their d-orbitals.
* **Formation of colored compounds:** Their d-orbitals can participate in bonding, leading to various colors in their compounds.
* **Ability to form complexes:** They can form complex ions with various ligands, influencing their properties and reactivity.

Here's a detailed look at the individual chemistry of each element:

**Vanadium (V):**

* **Oxidation states:** +5, +4, +3, +2
* **Important compounds:**
* Vanadium pentoxide (V₂O₅): Used as a catalyst in the Contact process for sulfuric acid production.
* Vanadyl sulfate (VO(SO₄)): Used in photography and as a mordant in dyeing.
* **Properties:**
* Exhibits various colors depending on the oxidation state.
* Vanadium(V) compounds are strong oxidizing agents.
* Forms oxoacids like vanadic acid (HVO₃).

**Chromium (Cr):**

* **Oxidation states:** +6, +3, +2
* **Important compounds:**
* Sodium dichromate (Na₂Cr₂O₇): Used as an oxidizing agent in various reactions.
* Potassium chromate (K₂CrO₄): Used as a pigment and corrosion inhibitor.
* Chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate (CrCl₃•6H₂O): Used as a mordant in dyeing and tanning leather.
* **Properties:**
* Chromium(VI) compounds are strong oxidizing agents and can be carcinogenic.
* Chromium(III) is the most stable oxidation state and forms many stable complexes.
* Exhibits various colors depending on the oxidation state and ligand environment.

**Cobalt (Co):**

* **Oxidation states:** +3, +2
* **Important compounds:**
* Cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl₂): Used as a desiccant and catalyst.
* Cobalt(II) sulfate (CoSO₄): Used in electroplating and pigments.
* Vitamin B₁₂: Contains cobalt(III) and is essential for human health.
* **Properties:**
* Forms many stable complexes with various ligands.
* Exhibits different colors depending on the oxidation state and ligand environment.
* Cobalt(II) compounds are often used as catalysts.

**Additional points to consider:**

* **Redox reactions:** All three elements can undergo redox reactions, involving changes in their oxidation states.
* **Complex formation:** Vanadium, chromium, and cobalt can form complexes with various ligands, influencing their properties like color, stability, and reactivity.
* **Industrial applications:** These elements and their compounds have numerous applications in various industries, including catalysis, pigments, dyes, and electroplating.

**Remember:** This is a general overview, and A-Level chemistry might delve deeper into specific aspects like reaction mechanisms, spectroscopic analysis, and industrial processes related to these elements. It's recommended to consult your textbook or other resources for more detailed information.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 3 days ago

Reaction of alkyl halide with hot potasium hydroxide in ethanol to form alkenesAlkyl halides react with alkalis to form alcoholsPotassium cyanides react and increase the carbon chains with alkyl halidesAlkyl halides couples in presence of sodium and ethyl ether to form alkanes with twice the carbon atoms as the parent chainAlkyl halides Form Gridnard’s reagents when reacted with magnesium and dry ether

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 3 days ago

Classification of aminesboiling and melting points of aminesolubility of aminesbasicity of aminespreparation of amines from alkyl halides, cyanides, nitroalkanesHofmann's degredation



## Amines: Comprehensive Notes

**1. Classification:**

Amines are organic compounds derived from ammonia (NH₃) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. They are classified into four primary types based on the number of alkyl/aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom:

* **Primary (1°):** One alkyl/aryl group attached to the nitrogen atom (e.g., CH₃NH₂ - Methylamine)
* **Secondary (2°):** Two alkyl/aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom (e.g., (CH₃)₂NH - Dimethylamine)
* **Tertiary (3°):** Three alkyl/aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom (e.g., (CH₃)₃N - Trimethylamine)
* **Quaternary (4°):** All four positions around the nitrogen atom are occupied by alkyl/aryl groups, resulting in a positively charged cation (e.g., [(CH₃)₄N⁺]Cl⁻ - Tetramethylammonium chloride)

**2. Physical Properties:**

* **Boiling and Melting Points:**
* Generally increase with increasing chain length of the alkyl/aryl groups due to stronger London dispersion forces.
* Branching in the chain can decrease boiling and melting points due to a decrease in surface area and weaker intermolecular interactions.
* Amines generally have lower boiling and melting points compared to similarly sized alcohols due to the absence of hydrogen bonding in amines.
* **Solubility:**
* Lower amines (primary and secondary) exhibit good water solubility due to the ability to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
* Solubility in water decreases with increasing size and branching of the alkyl/aryl groups due to the dominance of hydrophobic interactions over hydrogen bonding.
* Tertiary and quaternary amines with no N-H bonds are typically less soluble in water but may show solubility in organic solvents.

**3. Basicity:**

Amines exhibit basic character due to the presence of a lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom. This lone pair can accept a proton from acids, forming a positively charged ammonium ion. The basicity of amines follows the trend:

**Tertiary > Secondary > Primary > Ammonia**

Several factors influence the basicity of amines:

* **Inductive effect:** Electron-donating groups (e.g., alkyl groups) attached to the nitrogen atom increase basicity by pushing electron density towards the nitrogen, making it more willing to accept a proton.
* **Steric hindrance:** Bulky groups around the nitrogen atom hinder the approach of a proton, decreasing basicity.

**4. Preparation:**

Amines can be synthesized through various methods, some of the most common being:

* **Alkylation of ammonia or amines:** Reaction of ammonia or amines with alkyl halides under suitable conditions (e.g., heating with KOH).
* **Reduction of nitriles:** Conversion of nitriles (R-CN) to primary amines (R-CH₂NH₂) using reducing agents like LiAlH₄ or catalytic hydrogenation.
* **Reduction of nitroalkanes:** Conversion of nitroalkanes (R-NO₂) to primary, secondary, or tertiary amines depending on the reaction conditions and reducing agent used.
* **Gabriel synthesis:** Synthesis of primary amines from phthalimide using strong bases and alkyl halides.

**5. Hofmann Degradation:**

This reaction allows the conversion of a primary amide to a primary amine with one fewer carbon atom. The process involves treating the amide with bromine (Br₂) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), leading to rearrangement and cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond.

**6. Applications of Amines:**

Amines have diverse applications in various fields, including:

* **Pharmaceuticals:** Many drugs, such as antidepressants, decongestants, and antihistamines, contain amine groups.
* **Dyes and pigments:** Amines are used in the production of various dyes and pigments used in textiles, paints, and plastics.
* **Polymers and resins:** Amines are essential components in the synthesis of various polymers like nylon and resins used in adhesives and coatings.
* **Agrochemicals:** Some herbicides and insecticides contain amine functionalities.
* **Surfactants:** Quaternary ammonium salts are used as cationic surfactants in detergents and fabric softeners.

**7. Safety Considerations:**

Amines can exhibit various toxicities depending on their structure and properties. It is crucial to handle them with appropriate safety precautions, including wearing gloves, eye protection, and working in well-ventilated areas. Some amines may be flammable or corrosive, and proper handling procedures should be followed.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 3 days ago

reaction of amines with acidsreaction of amines with alkanoyl halidesreaction of primary amines with carbonyl compoundsmeans of distinguishing between classes of amines



1. Reaction of Amines with Acids:
When amines react with acids, they undergo acid-base reactions to form salts. The amine acts as a base and accepts a proton (H+) from the acid. The resulting salt is formed by the ammonium cation (RNH3+) and the anion of the acid.

Example: RNH2 + HCl → RNH3+Cl-

2. Reaction of Amines with Alkanoyl Halides:
Amines can also react with alkanoyl halides (acyl halides) to form amides. The halogen atom attached to the alkanoyl halide is replaced by the amine group, resulting in the formation of an amide bond.

Example: RNH2 + RCOX → RCONHR + HX (where X = halogen atom)

3. Reaction of Primary Amines with Carbonyl Compounds:
Primary amines can react with carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes or ketones, to form imines or Schiff bases. In this reaction, the nitrogen of the primary amine forms a double bond with the carbon of the carbonyl group.

Example: RCH=O + RNH2 → RCH=NHR + H2O

Means of distinguishing between classes of amines:
There are several methods to distinguish between different classes of amines, including:

1. Solubility: Primary amines are generally more soluble in water compared to secondary and tertiary amines due to the presence of a hydrogen atom on the nitrogen, which can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

2. N-Methylation: Primary amines can be methylated by treatment with methyl iodide and a base to form a tertiary amine. Secondary amines can also be methylated to form quaternary ammonium salts.

3. Reaction with Nitrous Acid: Primary amines react with nitrous acid (HNO2) to form a diazonium salt, which is an unstable compound. Secondary and tertiary amines do not react with nitrous acid. This reaction can be used as a distinguishing test.

4. Boiling Point: Tertiary amines generally have higher boiling points compared to primary and secondary amines due to the presence of more alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, which increase intermolecular forces.

5. Chromatographic Methods: Techniques such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or gas chromatography (GC) can be used to separate and analyze different classes of amines based on their different retention times or chromatographic behavior.

Alagai Augusten
5 Views · 3 days ago

As part of our 'Introduction to coding' session, we look at what coding is, what coding languages are, and why you might want to learn to code. For more coding resources see https://subjectguides.york.ac.uk/coding

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 5 days ago

US company Intuitive Machines has become the first private company to land on the Moon, and the first successful US mission to land on the lunar surface in more than 50 years.

It comes after fellow US company Astrobotic abandoned its own Moon landing attempt in January, following a fuel leak.

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#ABCNews #ABCNewsAustralia

Alagai Augusten
47 Views · 5 days ago

Taking on a Frontend Mentor challenge to explore how I go from design to code, including breaking down some of my thought processes along the way. This project is a fun exploration of flexbox, grid, custom properties, and variable fonts, to name a few things.

🔗 Links
✅ The project: https://www.frontendmentor.io/....challenges/results-s
✅ My finished code: https://github.com/kevin-powel....l/results-summary-co
✅ More on variable fonts: https://youtu.be/0fVymQ7SZw0
✅ More on custom properties: https://www.youtube.com/playli....st?list=PL4-IK0AVhVj
✅ Playlist of Frontend Mentor projects: https://youtube.com/playlist?l....ist=PL4-IK0AVhVjPreg

⌚ Timestamps
00:00 - Introduction
00:56 - Analysing the design and writing the HTML
11:20 - CSS - setting up the font-face declaration
12:11 - The custom properties
14:33 - A simple reset
15:22 - The base styles
17:17 - The result-summary layout
18:54 - The result section
26:40 - The relationship between the two columns
27:44 - The summary section
33:10 - Fixing the padding

#css

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Alagai Augusten
35 Views · 5 days ago

Html Tutorial for Beginner to Expert | Complete Html course in 1 hours

Learn HTML in step by step tutorial for beginner to Advanced. In this video i will teach you how you can start designing website or web page using HTML. If you want to learn web programming language HTML then this is the Complete Course For Beginners to start HTML coding, you can start learning HTML at home as this video cover following topics

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Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 6 days ago

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Austins Pesarlai
7 Views · 6 days ago

They are tiny, they are mighty - and they power the modern world. Computer chips run everything from our smartphones to our dishwashers. Over the years they've become ever more powerful - and today, it is their potential to steer Artificial Intelligence that is generating the most attention. But there's a problem. Producing these super advanced chips is extremely expensive. And that is why Sam Altman - the founder of Open AI - that's the company behind Chat GPT - is calling for a $7 trillion investment in the industry. DW Business speaks to Chris Miller, Associate Professor of International History at The Fletcher School and the author of a book called "Chip War."

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#AI #chips

Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 6 days ago

Computers, cars, mobile phones, toasters: countless everyday objects contain microchips. They’re tiny, unremarkable and cheap, but since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, they’ve been at the center of a political and industrial tug of war.

Against the backdrop of the trade war between China and the US, "The Microchip War" spotlights all the aspects of this conflict. In the film, the world’s most influential actors in this industrial sector weigh in.

No one is in any doubt that microprocessors are as strategically important as oil. The battle over microchips could potentially redefine the geopolitical world order. In the United States and Europe, fears over a microprocessor shortage have led to a flood of investment pledges. After ceding microchip production to Asia in the 1990s, market leaders in the West are now trying to bring production back home and thereby regain control of the production chain.

This resulted in the adoption of new legislation in 2022: the European Chips Act initiated by the EU Commission under Ursula von der Leyen and - in response to this - the American "Chip and Science Act" initiated by Joe Biden. China, the US, Europe: major global powers fighting over tiny microchips. Pandemic and resource scarcity have fueled the desire for industrial reconquest and economic superiority.

But is this reindustrialization actually possible? Can the West challenge the foundations of globalization in this way?

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Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 6 days ago

From January 2019, Scott Pelley's interview with "the oracle of AI," Kai-Fu Lee. From this past April, Pelley's report on Google's AI efforts. And from this past March, Lesley Stahl's story on chatbots like ChatGPT and a world of unknowns.

#news #artificialintelligence #technology

"60 Minutes" is the most successful television broadcast in history. Offering hard-hitting investigative reports, interviews, feature segments and profiles of people in the news, the broadcast began in 1968 and is still a hit, over 50 seasons later, regularly making Nielsen's Top 10.

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0:00 Introduction
0:11 The Oracle of AI
12:56 The Revolution (Part 1)
27:33 The Revolution (Part 2)
40:00 Who is minding the chatbots?

tebtalks
6 Views · 6 days ago

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tebtalks
5 Views · 6 days ago

😍⁣the 10 most common programming languages were:
JavaScript: Widely used for web development, it's essential for building interactive websites and web applications.
Python: Known for its simplicity and versatility, Python is used in web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, scientific computing, and more.
Java: A popular language for building enterprise-scale applications, Android apps, and large-scale systems.
C#: Primarily used in game development with Unity, desktop applications, and enterprise software development on the .NET framework.
C/C++: Commonly used for system programming, game development, embedded systems, and performance-critical applications.
PHP: Mainly used for server-side web development, especially in the creation of dynamic web pages and web applications.
TypeScript: A superset of JavaScript, TypeScript adds optional static typing and other features, making it easier to scale JavaScript applications.
Swift: Apple's programming language for iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS development, known for its safety features and modern syntax.
SQL: Not a traditional programming language, but essential for managing and querying relational databases.
Ruby: Known for its simplicity and productivity, Ruby is used primarily in web development, particularly with the Ruby on Rails framework.
These rankings may have shifted slightly since then, but these languages remain widely used and relevant in the software development industry.⁣

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 7 days ago

Follow Us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/ic3movement1/
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Presented as part of the 2017 Annual IC3 Conference inauguration program: a tribute to Teacher Molly Abraham.

IC3 Movement: https://www.ic3movement.com/
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tebtalks
5 Views · 8 days ago

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Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 8 days ago

Microsoft's Copilot is a new AI integration across Windows 11, Bing, Edge, and Microsoft 365. It enhances tasks like design in Paint using DALL-E 3 and offers smarter browsing in Edge. This New AI feature revolutionizes user experience and productivity.

Become a Member of the channel and Supporter of AI Revolution → https://www.youtube.com/channe....l/UC5l7RouTQ60oUjLjt

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Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 8 days ago

Googles GEMINI Just SHOCKED The ENTIRE INDUSTRY! (GPT-4 Beaten) All Capabilities,

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Alagai Augusten
4 Views · 8 days ago

Take my Full Python Course Here: https://www.analystbuilder.com..../courses/pandas-for-

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0:00 Intro
0:41 First Look at Data
2:34 Removing Duplicates
3:41 Dropping Columns
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12:15 Cleaning/Standardizing Phone Numbers
21:29 Splitting Columns
24:58 Standardizing Column Values using Replace
28:40 Fill Null Values
29:42 Filtering Down Rows of Data
36:42 Outro

*All opinions or statements in this video are my own and do not reflect the opinion of the company I work for or have ever worked for*

Landus Mumbere Expedito
0 Views · 9 days ago

⁣The human eye is a complex and delicate organ responsible for vision. It is a sensory organ that detects light and converts it into electrical signals that the brain can interpret.

The main structures of the human eye include:

1. Cornea: The clear outermost layer of the eye that acts as a protective barrier. It helps focus incoming light onto the retina.

2. Iris: The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupil.

3. Pupil: The dark circular opening at the center of the iris. It dilates or constricts in response to light intensity.

4. Lens: A transparent, flexible structure behind the iris. It focuses light onto the retina by changing shape through accommodation.

5. Retina: The innermost layer of the eye that contains millions of light-sensitive cells called rods and cones. It converts light into electrical signals and sends them to the brain via the optic nerve.

6. Rods: Photoreceptor cells in the retina responsible for black and white vision and detecting movement in low light conditions.

7. Cones: Photoreceptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision, detailed central vision, and visual acuity.

8. Optic Nerve: A bundle of nerve fibers that carries electrical signals from the retina to the brain, allowing for visual perception.

9. Macula: A small region near the center of the retina that contains a high concentration of cones and is responsible for central vision, including reading and fine detail recognition.

10. Fovea: A small depression within the macula where the concentration of cones is the highest. It is responsible for sharp and clear central vision.

11. Sclera: The tough, white outer covering of the eyeball, known as the "white of the eye."

12. Choroid: A layer between the sclera and the retina that provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer layers of the retina.

13. Aqueous and Vitreous Humors: Transparent fluids that fill the front and back of the eye, respectively, helping to maintain its shape and provide nutrition.

These structures work together seamlessly to allow the eye to collect and focus light, convert it into electrical signals, and send those signals to the brain for interpretation, thus enabling vision.e

Landus Mumbere Expedito
0 Views · 9 days ago

⁣The human brain is a complex organ composed of a vast network of interconnected cells called neurons. It is the center of our nervous system and is responsible for regulating and controlling bodily functions, including thoughts, emotions, behavior, and bodily movements. The brain is divided into several main regions, each with specific functions.

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, divided into two hemispheres (left and right). Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes - frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. The cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions, such as decision-making, problem-solving, memory, language, and sensory perception.

2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating voluntary muscle movements, balance, and posture.

3. Brainstem: Connects the brain to the spinal cord and is composed of three main parts - the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. It is responsible for many essential functions such as regulating heartbeat, breathing, sleeping, and maintaining consciousness.

4. Limbic System: Located deep within the cerebral hemispheres, the limbic system plays a crucial role in emotional regulation, memory formation, and the experience of pleasure and reward. It includes structures like the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.

5. Corpus Callosum: A broad band of nerve fibers that connects and allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.

Within this general structure, the brain is also divided into specific areas that perform specialized functions. These areas include the sensory cortex (perception of touch, pain, and temperature), motor cortex (voluntary motor control), visual cortex (processing visual information), auditory cortex (processing auditory information), and many others.

It is important to note that the structure of the brain is highly interconnected and integrated, allowing for efficient communication between different regions. This interconnectedness enables various brain functions and contributes to our complex cognitive abilities.

Austins Pesarlai
3 Views · 9 days ago

Dubai, located in the United Arab Emirates, is a modern and dynamic city in the Middle East known for its opulence, innovation, and architectural marvels. It's a global hub for business, finance, and tourism, with a skyline dominated by futuristic skyscrapers, including the iconic Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest building. Dubai is famous for its luxury shopping, extravagant hotels, and a vibrant nightlife scene. The city also offers unique experiences like indoor skiing in the desert and man-made islands, such as the Palm Jumeirah. With its rich cultural heritage, diverse population, and a blend of tradition and modernity, Dubai has become a must-visit destination for travelers seeking luxury and adventure.
Track list:
00:00:00 | 1. Flowers in your eyes
00:30:04 | 2. Flowers in your eyes
01:00:13 | 3. Hold On
---------------------------------------------
Music to sleep deeply and rest the mind, relaxing and calm music to sleep.
To stay calm and relieve stress after a hard day at work, turn on soothing music. By listening to relaxing music, you can reduce stress hormones in the body. It helps the body fight the symptoms of prolonged stress.
We are a music label that does everything possible to help you feel calmer and happier with music. Music has no barriers, so no matter who you are or where you come from, these beautiful beats are made for you. Join the journey to find your inner peace and brighten your day.

🌞 PIANO RELAX, MUSIC FOR YOUR SOUL 💝

🎵 Music By: Music by Helios Records: https://linktr.ee/heliosrecords

📸 Linkthumb : https://pixabay.com

🌿 For long hours, beautiful relaxation music, meditation piano music, stress relief piano music, check out our Youtube playlist:

🌞 For contact and submit music: relaxmusic@sevenzone.us
► All rights belong to their respective owners.
✔ This video was given a special license directly from the artists and the right holders.

#8K
#60fps
#dubai
#8KNatureFilm

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 9 days ago

Turkey is one of the most scenic countries in the world. Enjoy this 4K relaxation film across the Turkey's most beautiful regions. From the historic city of Istanbul to the stunning Mediterranean coast, Turkey's landscapes have so many places waiting to be explored.

Our other Relaxation films:

Germany Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/li-_BLtq58w

Switzerland Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/kVxTrhojpFI

Italy Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/2b2gJu-g3qE

France Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/6lxg0NKZjOE

Russia Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/lyh2kAjcmSY

Spain Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/YGAsG6_JgAI

Iceland Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/Pbzn79TSRO0

Norway Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/CxwJrzEdw1U

Scotland Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/Mc7XKiNrHQc

Alps Relaxation Film 4K - https://youtu.be/3PZ65s2qLTE

Follow us on instagram @scenicrelaxationfilms

Where we get our music - http://share.mscbd.fm/scenicrelaxation
Great Place for Stock footage - https://bit.ly/38b1EJH
Free stock footage, guides & luts - https://sellfy.com/ryanshirley

Austins Pesarlai
9 Views · 9 days ago

Please enjoy this aerial footage of New York City throughout the 2022 year. Including Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens, from all times of the year. Featuring the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building, Times Square, Hudson Yards, East Village, Financial district, Washington Square, SoHo, Midtown, Billionaires Row, Central Park, Columbus circle, and much more.

🎵 Music 🎵
00:00 Dirtythree - “Boost”
02:54 Birocratic - “Celery Man”
06:12 DirtyThree - “Angry Flow”
09:07 Ruck P - “Reason”
11:58 Carpenter - “Broadway”
14:49 Birocratic - “Jon Gordo”
18:11 Beamic & Oskar Hahn - “Weightless”
21:01 AK 420 - “Past”
24:51 Birocratic - “Extra Fresh”
28:54 Chuckee - “Who Else”
32:33 DirtyThree - “Old Town”
35:56 Joakim Karud - “Fireplace”
39:44 Maffyn - “Hush”
42:10 Beamic - “Brooklyn”
46:36 Ruck P - “Rise Up”
50:23 Beatmaschine - “Underground’s My Style”
53:47 Joakim Karud - “Dreams”
56:54 Birocratic - “Oscar”
59:24 Kick a Dope Verse - “To All My People
(ft. Phil Tyler, Bubbles & Sudakillah”
01:02:24 Guggenz - “Sky Hight”
01:05:41 Ruck P - “Early Morning”
01:09:38 Beatmaschine - “Calm (ft. Luk The Dude)
01:13:14 Beamic - “To The Moon”
01:15:20 Birocratic - “Haunted”
01:19:08 AK 420 - “Wake’n’Bake”
01:22:09 Joakim Karud - “Dissolve”
01:25:03 Mo Anando - “Diamond Head”
01:27:58 Birocratic - “Do Gooders”
01:31:03 Beamic - “Endless Lane”
01:34:03 Guggenz - “Let’s Ride”
01:37:24 Ent - “Midnight Vibin”
01:39:51 Martius Ali - “When the Sun Sets”
01:43:01 Birocratic - “Bob Ross Goes to Hollywood”
01:45:59 OJ Son - “Begin to Life”
01:48:50 Beamic - “Out of My Head”
01:52:15 L’indecis - “Le Sud”
01:55:55 Birocratic - “Marinade”
01:58:35 Ruck P - “3UO”
02:02:00 Beatmaschine - “Jax”

📥 Contact 📥
thedronalist@gmail.com

Austins Pesarlai
3 Views · 9 days ago

High Quality 12K 8K 4K HDR VIDEO ULTRA HD 60FPS , 240FPS , 120FPS , For Your 4K / 8K TV / 12K TV - Apple XDR TV , Samsung TV , LG TV , Sony HDR TV, OLED TV, QLED TV, iPhone, Huawei, Xiaomi, Asus Phone and your others 4K / 8K / 12K HDR Device.
》You can use this High Resolution Video Footage on your TV at Living Room, Office, Lounge, Waiting Room, Spa, Showroom, Restaurant and more. Play It On Your LG OLed TV, Samsung QLed TV, Smart TV, Sony Device, Samsung Technology, Roku, Apple TV, IPad Pro, Apple XDR, Chromecast, Xbox, Playstation, Wii and more.

》This 4K / 8K / 12K Demo video is make for Entertainment and Educational purposes.

》I have Done High Color Correction, Color Changing, Bit rate, Raw videos editing, Merge files, 12K Export file and more.

00:00 Intro
00:10 Original Video Start
1:19:50 Original Video End
1:19:55 End Scene

Join this channel to get access to perks:
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More HDR Video: https://youtube.com/playlist?l....ist=PL0Kkfpim5i3kTdH
More Popular HDR Videos________________________
Switzerland HDR Video : https://youtu.be/kH94o7dt9Ok
Future of 12K HDR: https://youtu.be/1llOTrBdaBU
Switzerland HDR : https://youtu.be/ZR44rf8Q89g
Best of 2022 HDR Video: https://youtu.be/TfSwG5oO4K8
Real 12k HDR: https://youtu.be/fmZRZj72TcY
Cinematic ISTANBUL: https://youtu.be/NHH11EAkrAI
MIami 12K HDR: https://youtu.be/5gv4a8it22M
NYC in HDR: https://youtu.be/GijK6CeNwDc
Russia 12K: https://youtu.be/yHIDPMzPkI0
Iceland 12k HDR: https://youtu.be/emzsexkpVj4

--------------
》Thumbnail Credits: Paid Stock Image.
------------
》Music in This Video:

1. "Keys Of Moon - Mountain Legend" is under a Creative Commons (CC BY 3.0) license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Music powered by BreakingCopyright: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYuiPTqeGPw

2. "Waroxe - I'm free" is under a Free To Use on YouTube license
Music powered by BreakingCopyright: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5wq0v9Z9MJE

3. Song: "Doug Maxwell - Lau Tzu Ehru"
Music promoted by BreakingCopyright: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QRF2zzEFu8c

4. 'Awake' by Sappheiros is under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0)
https://www.youtube.com/c/Sappheiros
Music promoted by BreakingCopyright: https://bit.ly/awake-song

5. Music: All The Tea In China by Shane Ivers - https://www.silvermansound.com
Promoted by BreakingCopyright: http://bit.ly/Savfk-TheGrid

& Others Music I used Paid Music in This Video.

------------
》All Credits Goes to Youtube
--------------

© Disclaimer:
》All The Footage Used In this Video Licensed by 8K Earth.
》I Use Paid Stock Footage & All Pictures In My Channel.
》Video Footage Copyright Under Standard License.
》I tried to Present the Video in a new way by Changing the color of the Video.

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Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 9 days ago

4K UltraHD United States America city Tour in HD 60FPS Video
Welcome to our channel! In this captivating video, we invite you to embark on a mesmerizing 4K UltraHD City Tour of the United States of America. Immerse yourself in the breathtaking beauty of America's most magnificent cities as we take you on a visually stunning journey in HD 60FPS video quality.

Prepare to be awestruck by the grandeur of iconic landmarks, bustling streets, and vibrant cityscapes showcased in the highest definition possible. Witness the architectural marvels of New York City, the sun-kissed beaches of Los Angeles, the historic charm of Boston, and so much more—all in glorious detail.

Our 4K UltraHD US City Tours capture every moment with unparalleled clarity, vivid colors, and smooth motion at a staggering 60 frames per second. As you watch, you'll feel like you're truly there, experiencing the thrill and energy of each city firsthand.

Whether you're planning a future trip, reminiscing about past adventures, or simply seeking visual serenity, this video will transport you to an immersive world of stunning landscapes and cultural marvels. Sit back, relax, and let your screen come alive with the beauty of the United States.

Don't miss out on this incredible opportunity to explore America's wonders like never before. Subscribe to our channel for more awe-inspiring videos featuring 4K UltraHD City Tours from around the globe. Hit that notification bell to stay updated with our latest releases!

Video Title: 4K UltraHD United States Ameria city Tour in HD 60FPS Video

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=============================

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Explore TM" is a YouTube channel that suggests focusing on exploration, covering various topics from travel and adventure to technology and media. This channel is a platform for discovering new places, ideas, or experiences, inviting viewers to join a journey of exploration and discovery. Keep an eye on "Explore TM" for future content that may get into exciting and informative realms. 🌍🔍🚀🎥🌟

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⚠️DISCLAIMER: We do not accept any liability for any loss or damage incurred from you acting or not acting as a result of watching any of our publications. You acknowledge that you use the information we provide at your own risk. Do your research.

Copyright Notice: This video and our YouTube channel contain dialogue, music, and images that are the property of Explore TM. You are authorized to share the video link and channel and embed this video in your website or others as long as a link back to our YouTube channel is provided.

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Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 10 days ago

Discover the fascinating journey of Colgate toothpaste production in this video! Dive deep into how Colgate toothpaste is manufactured, from the selection of raw materials to the innovative mixing process. Witness the intricate details of how this renowned toothpaste is made, with insights into the ingredients, the machinery, and the dedication to quality that has made Colgate a global leader in oral care. Whether you're curious about the manufacturing process or a Colgate enthusiast, this video provides a comprehensive look at the creation of one of the world's most popular toothpastes. Don't miss out on this behind-the-scenes exploration!

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 10 days ago

How Toilet Paper is Made

Most of us can’t imagine our lives without toilet paper. Not only is it used for bathroom hygiene but also for nose care, wiping up spills, removing makeup, and small bathroom cleaning chores. The average American uses over 100 single rolls each year and if that statistic is taken into account, it more than well explains the revenue generated by the industry worldwide. A jaw-dropping 100 billion dollars! So how do they make toilet paper?

In today's video we look at How Toilet Paper is Made...Keep watching to see toilet paper,how toilet paper is made,toilet paper factory,toilet paper machine,toilet paper making machine,small toilet paper making machine,how toilet paper is made in factory,toilet paper alternatives,toilet tissue paper making machine,toilet paper production line,how it made toilet paper,toilet,tissue toilet paper,toilet paper history,toilet paper cat,cowboy's toilet paper,he grows his own toilet paper,we made a room of toilet paper

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Inspired by Science Channel , Insider Business, King Process, Wondastic Tech, All process of world, Process X, Fabricando

Inspired by How Toilet Paper is Made

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Inspired by Toilet Paper Mass Production Factory. Korean Toilet Paper Roll Manufacturing Process

Inspired by How It's Made: Tissues

Inspired by How Toilet Paper Is Made in Factory - Toilet Tissue Paper Making Machine

Inspired by Toilet Paper Factory Tour | How Toilet Paper Is Made In Factory

Also check out: How Chocolate is Made
https://youtu.be/-bdp9KYg_Vs

On Factora we will go through how things are made, the process of making everyday items, the science behind making them. Stay tuned for the latest production line and factory videos of everyday items being made.

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#factora #factory #howthingsaremade

Austins Pesarlai
8 Views · 10 days ago

Amazing Production Process with Modern Machines and Skilful Workers
In this video:
1. axial closed die rolling machine: Arvind Gaur /G7 Consultant
2. Crown Wheel Gear Manufacturing Process on gear cutting machine: www.oxoop3.wix.com/samjeong-
3. Razor making process in China: www.chinarazor.com
🔨 Watch more creative workers: https://youtube.com/playlist?l....ist=PLyjeICtX4AX9iUZ

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#creative #technology #innovation #fast #construction

Austins Pesarlai
3 Views · 11 days ago

Alexei Navalny was long the most prominent face of Russian opposition to President Vladimir Putin.

The 47-year-old blogger had survived poisoning attempts and years in some of Russia's most notorious jails, after his group had exposed corruption at almost every level of the Russian state - frequently targeting President Putin himself.

Even from behind bars, unable to challenge the president at the ballot box, his voice had retained power.

But in February 2024, it fell silent. According to the prison service, he had gone for a walk when he lost consciousness and died.

In the immediate aftermath, the Kremlin simply said that it was aware of his death, and the president had been informed.

Across the world, however, there was shock and anger, as tributes were paid to a man who some said gave his life standing up to Russia's all-powerful leader.

Subscribe here: http://bit.ly/1rbfUog

For more news, analysis and features visit: www.bbc.com/news

#Russia #Putin #BBCNews

Austins Pesarlai
3 Views · 11 days ago

Former President Donald Trump must pay $354 million for fraudulent business practices, Judge Arthur Engoron has ruled.

Trump's sons Donald Trump Jr. and Eric Trump have been fined $4 million apiece, and former Trump Organization CFO has been fined $1 million.

https://abcnews.go.com/US/live....-updates/trump-fraud
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Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 11 days ago

US Deploys Five Aircraft Carriers to Challenge China | Vantage with Palki Sharma

The US will soon have five aircraft carriers in the western Pacific to deter China. This unprecedented deployment comes as US allies raise concerns about the stalled foreign aid bill. Will Biden's powerplay allay those concerns? Palki Sharma tells you.

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US | Pacific Ocean | China | Warships | Deployment | Firstpost | World News | Vantage | Palki Sharma

#us #pacificocean #china #warships #deployment #firstpost #vantageonfirstpost #palkisharma #worldnews

Vantage is a ground-breaking news, opinions, and current affairs show from Firstpost. Catering to a global audience, Vantage covers the biggest news stories from a 360-degree perspective, giving viewers a chance to assess the impact of world events through a uniquely Indian lens.

The show is anchored by Palki Sharma, Managing Editor, Firstpost.

By breaking stereotypes, Vantage aims to challenge conventional wisdom and present an alternative view on global affairs, defying the norm and opening the door to new perspectives. The show goes beyond the headlines to uncover the hidden stories – making Vantage a destination for thought-provoking ideas.

Vantage airs Monday to Friday at 9 PM IST on Firstpost across all leading platforms.

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Austins Pesarlai
3 Views · 11 days ago

The Minuteman III is the only land-based ICBM in service in the US, and can carry up to three nuclear warheads and travel more than 8,000 miles to strike targets anywhere in the world.
The test launch program helps the Air Force evaluate the Minuteman III and gather data to keep the system effective. The test launches also demonstrate the readiness and capability of the US nuclear forces, and show the US commitment to maintaining a credible and capable nuclear deterrent.

#minuteman #icbmmissile #nuclear

Austins Pesarlai
2 Views · 11 days ago

Dozens of world leaders are gathering for the Munich Security Conference, which begins shortly in the German city.
The annual forum to debate the world's most pressing security challenges is marking its 60th edition. And this year the list of challenges is especially long.
US Vice-President Kamala Harris is one of the speakers on the first day. Dominant topics will include the war in Gaza, with high-level delegations expected from Israel, the Palestinian Authority, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

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#munich #security #international

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 11 days ago

German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy on Friday signed a bilateral security agreement worth €1.13 billion ($1.22 billion) in Berlin.

Germany's defense ministry said the so-called "Munich Package" focuses on air defense and artillery and includes provisions of 120,000 rounds of 122-millimeter caliber ammunition and an additional 100 IRIS-T SLS missiles this year.

Scholz called the agreement an "historic" step.

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#Ukraine #Germany #Zelenskyy

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 11 days ago

How did Putin's Most Prominent Critic Die? | Vantage with Palki Sharma

Putin critic and Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny died today in prison. Russia says he died from complications in prison while the West says it was Putin who murdered Navalny. So how did Navalny rise to prominence? How did he become Putin's fiercest critic? What is the mystery surrounding his death? Palki Sharma tells you.

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Alexei Navalny | Vladimir Putin | Russia | Prison | Firstpost | World News | Vantage | Palki Sharma

#alexeinavalny #vladimirputin #russia #prison #firstpost #vantageonfirstpost #palkisharma #worldnews

Vantage is a ground-breaking news, opinions, and current affairs show from Firstpost. Catering to a global audience, Vantage covers the biggest news stories from a 360-degree perspective, giving viewers a chance to assess the impact of world events through a uniquely Indian lens.

The show is anchored by Palki Sharma, Managing Editor, Firstpost.

By breaking stereotypes, Vantage aims to challenge conventional wisdom and present an alternative view on global affairs, defying the norm and opening the door to new perspectives. The show goes beyond the headlines to uncover the hidden stories – making Vantage a destination for thought-provoking ideas.

Vantage airs Monday to Friday at 9 PM IST on Firstpost across all leading platforms.

Subscribe to Firstpost channel and press the bell icon to get notified when we go live.
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Follow Firstpost on Instagram:
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Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 12 days ago

According to a White House official, Russia is making progress towards developing a nuclear fueled space asset that could block communications and other signals here on earth. Meanwhile, Russian President Vladimir Putin has said he would prefer President Biden win the election over Republican frontrunner Donald Trump. NBC News reporter Peter Alexander reports.

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#Russia #Military #Space

Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 12 days ago

The White House confirmed Thursday that intelligence shows Russia is developing an "anti-satellite capability." The White House said the technology Russia is developing would violate a 1967 treaty banning nuclear weapons in space. Ed O'Keefe has more.

"CBS Evening News with Norah O'Donnell" delivers the latest news and original reporting, and goes beyond the headlines with context and depth. Catch the CBS Evening News every weekday night at 6:30 p.m. ET on the CBS Television Network and at 12 a.m. ET on the CBS News app.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
8 Views · 13 days ago

chemistry of period 2 elements and diagonal relationships for Advanced Level students


The period 2 elements in the periodic table include lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), boron (B), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), fluorine (F), and neon (Ne). These elements display a wide range of chemical properties and behaviors due to variations in their atomic structure and electron configurations.

1. Lithium (Li): Lithium is the lightest metal in the periodic table and is highly reactive. It readily loses its outermost electron to form a Li+ cation, making it a strong reducing agent. Lithium compounds are used in batteries, ceramics, and pharmaceuticals.

2. Beryllium (Be): Beryllium is a lightweight alkaline earth metal. It is strong, lightweight, and resistant to high temperatures, making it valuable in industries such as aerospace and nuclear power. Beryllium oxide is used as a ceramic material and a thermal conductor.

3. Boron (B): Boron is a metalloid with both nonmetallic and metallic properties. It forms covalent bonds and exhibits variations in hybridization, resulting in a diverse range of compounds. Boron compounds have numerous applications, including as fertilizers, flame retardants, and as a component in borosilicate glass.

4. Carbon (C): Carbon is a nonmetal that forms the basis of organic chemistry. It has four valence electrons, allowing it to form a large variety of compounds with other elements. Carbon compounds include hydrocarbons, such as methane and ethane, as well as complex molecules like carbohydrates, proteins, and DNA.

5. Nitrogen (N): Nitrogen is a diatomic nonmetal that makes up about 78% of Earth's atmosphere. It is relatively inert and forms strong triple bonds between nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen compounds are important in fertilizers, explosives, and as a coolant in various applications.

6. Oxygen (O): Oxygen is a highly reactive nonmetal that readily forms compounds, including oxides. It is essential for respiration and combustion processes. Oxygen also plays a crucial role in the ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere.

7. Fluorine (F): Fluorine is the most electronegative element and is highly reactive. It is a diatomic nonmetal that reacts with almost all other elements, often resulting in the release of energy. Fluorine compounds are used in toothpaste, refrigerants, and in the production of plastics.

8. Neon (Ne): Neon is a noble gas and has a completely filled valence electron shell. It is chemically inert and does not readily form compounds. Neon is commonly used in neon signs due to its bright orange-red glow when an electric current passes through it.

These period 2 elements demonstrate a wide range of chemical behaviors and applications, from highly reactive metals (such as lithium) to non-reactive noble gases (such as neon). Their properties and reactivities are a result of their electronic configurations and atomic structures.




Here are some examples of reactions involving period 2 elements:

1. Lithium and water: Lithium reacts vigorously with water to produce lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The reaction is highly exothermic and liberates a large amount of heat.

2. Beryllium and oxygen: Beryllium reacts with oxygen to form beryllium oxide. This reaction is highly exothermic and releases a large amount of heat.

3. Carbon and oxygen: Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. This reaction occurs during combustion processes and is responsible for the production of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

4. Nitrogen and hydrogen: Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form ammonia in the Haber process. The reaction is catalyzed by an iron catalyst and occurs at high temperature and pressure.

5. Oxygen and hydrogen: Oxygen reacts with hydrogen to form water. This reaction occurs during combustion processes, and it is also an important component of the water cycle.

6. Fluorine and metals: Fluorine reacts vigorously with metals to form metal fluorides. This reaction is highly exothermic and can result in the release of toxic fluorine gas.

7. Beryllium and acids: Beryllium reacts readily with acids to form beryllium salts and hydrogen gas. This reaction can release hydrogen gas, which may pose a hazard.

8. Boron and halogens: Boron reacts with halogens, such as chlorine and fluorine, to form boron halides. These compounds are often used as reagents in organic chemistry reactions.

9. Carbon and water: Carbon can react with water to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas.

These are just a few examples of the wide range of chemical reactions that period 2 elements can participate in. The reactivity and behavior of each element are related to its electronic structure and valence electron configuration.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 13 days ago

Physical chemistry for A level students especially for those for UACE exams in Uganda

Acid-base indicators are substances that undergo a color change in response to changes in the pH of a solution. They are often used in chemical experiments and titration procedures to determine the endpoint of an acid-base reaction. Different indicators have different pH transition ranges and colors, allowing for the identification of the pH range during a titration.

pH titration curves, on the other hand, are graphical representations of the pH of a solution as a function of the volume of a titrant added during a titration. In an acid-base titration, a solution of known concentration (titrant) is slowly added to a solution of unknown concentration (analyte) until the reaction between the two is complete. The pH titration curve plots the pH of the solution being titrated against the volume of titrant added.

The shape of a pH titration curve depends on the nature of the acid and base involved in the reaction, as well as their relative concentrations. The curve typically starts at a low pH when only the acid is present, rises gradually as the titrant is added, and eventually undergoes a rapid change near the equivalence point, where stoichiometrically equivalent amounts of acid and base have reacted. After the equivalence point, the curve levels off and remains at a high pH when only excess base is present.

The behavior of the pH titration curve depends on the strength of the acid and base being titrated. For strong acids and strong bases, the curve is relatively steep around the equivalence point, resulting in a sharp endpoint and a well-defined titration. For weak acids and weak bases, the curve will be smoother and have a more gradual change around the equivalence point, making it more difficult to determine the exact endpoint of the titration.

By using acid-base indicators in titrations, the color change of the indicator can be used to visually identify the endpoint of the titration. The indicator is chosen based on its pH transition range, which is the pH range over which the indicator changes color. For example, phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator in acid-base titrations, as it changes from colorless to pink in a pH range of 8.2 to 10.0. By observing the color change of the indicator, the endpoint of the titration can be determined, indicating that the reaction is complete.

In summary, acid-base indicators are substances that change color in response to changes in pH, allowing for the observation of endpoint during titrations. pH titration curves, on the other hand, are graphical representations of the pH of a solution as a function of the volume of titrant added during a titration. They depict the behavior of pH during a titration and can be used to determine the equivalence point and the strength of the acid and base involved.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 13 days ago

physical chemistry; hydrolysis of salts for A-level students

In chemistry, hydrolysis of salts refers to the reaction of a salt with water, resulting in the formation of an acidic or basic solution. Salts are ionic compounds formed from the neutralization of an acid and a base. When a salt dissolves in water, it dissociates into its component ions, which can either be acidic, basic, or neutral.

The hydrolysis of salts can be classified into two categories: acidic hydrolysis and basic hydrolysis, depending on the nature of the salt and the pH of the resulting solution.

1. Acidic hydrolysis: This type of hydrolysis occurs when the salt formed from a weak acid and a strong base is dissolved in water. The anion of the salt acts as a base and reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions and the corresponding acid. For example, when ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, is dissolved in water, it undergoes hydrolysis according to the equation:

NH4Cl + H2O ⇌ NH3 + HCl

The ammonium ion (NH4+) acts as an acid and donates a proton to the water, forming ammonium hydroxide (NH3) and hydronium ion (H3O+). The chloride ion (Cl-) acts as a base and accepts a proton from water, forming hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydroxide ion (OH-).

2. Basic hydrolysis: This type of hydrolysis occurs when the salt formed from a strong acid and a weak base is dissolved in water. The cation of the salt acts as an acid and reacts with water to produce hydronium ions and the corresponding base. For example, when sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2, is dissolved in water, it undergoes hydrolysis according to the equation:

NaC2H3O2 + H2O ⇌ Na+ + C2H3O2- + H3O+ + OH-

The sodium ion (Na+) and acetate ion (C2H3O2-) remain unchanged, while water reacts with a small fraction of acetate ions to form acetic acid (HC2H3O2) and hydroxide ion (OH-). At the same time, water reacts with a small fraction of hydronium ions to form hydronium ion (H3O+) and hydroxide ion (OH-).

In summary, hydrolysis of salts can either produce acidic or basic solutions, depending on the nature of the salt and the pH of the resulting solution. Understanding the hydrolysis of salts is important in various chemical and biochemical processes, including the buffering capacity of biological fluids and the maintenance of pH in water treatment processes.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 13 days ago

worked examples to thermodynamics question

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 13 days ago

this academic video for Advanced level students taking chemistry for UACE exams; it describes equilibrium constant Kc and its application with several worked examples.

In chemistry, equilibrium refers to a state where the rates of the forward and reverse reactions of a chemical reaction are equal. This means that the concentration of reactants and products remain constant over time, even though the reactions continue to occur. At equilibrium, the system is said to be in a dynamic balance.

The equilibrium constant, denoted by Kc, is a numerical value that represents the ratio of the concentrations of products to the concentrations of reactants, with each concentration raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. The equilibrium constant expression is written as:

Kc = [C]^c [D]^d / [A]^a [B]^b

Where A, B, C, and D represent the reactants and products, and a, b, c, and d represent their stoichiometric coefficients.

The equilibrium constant is a measure of the extent to which a reaction proceeds toward the formation of products. It is a constant at a given temperature and is independent of the initial concentrations of the reactants. The value of Kc reflects the relative concentrations of the reactants and products at equilibrium.

The magnitude of the equilibrium constant provides information about the position of equilibrium.

- If Kc > 1, it indicates that the equilibrium favors the products. This means that at equilibrium, the concentration of the products is higher compared to the concentrations of the reactants.

- If Kc < 1, it suggests that the equilibrium favors the reactants. At equilibrium, the concentration of the reactants is higher compared to the concentrations of the products.

- If Kc = 1, it signifies that the reactants and products are present in roughly equal concentrations at equilibrium.

The equilibrium constant provides insights into the direction in which a reaction will proceed or which species will be present in greater abundance at equilibrium. It also allows for predictions about the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, or pressure on the position of equilibrium.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 13 days ago

reactions of amines in A-level organic chemistry


Certainly! Amine chemistry refers to the branch of organic chemistry that focuses on the study of compounds containing amine functional groups (-NH2). Amines are organic compounds derived from ammonia (NH3), where one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups.

Amines can be classified into three main types based on the number of alkyl or aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary Amines: These are amines where one hydrogen atom of ammonia is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. They have the general formula R-NH2.

2. Secondary Amines: In secondary amines, two hydrogen atoms of ammonia are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups. They are represented by the general formula R2-NH.

3. Tertiary Amines: Tertiary amines have three alkyl or aryl groups attached to the nitrogen atom. Their general formula is R3-N.

Amine chemistry plays a crucial role in a wide range of applications, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials science, and biochemistry. Amines can participate in various reactions, such as substitution, oxidation, reduction, condensation, alkylation, and acylation.

Some notable reactions involving amines include:

1. Amine substitution: Amines can undergo substitution reactions with various electrophiles, wherein the amino group is replaced by another atom or group. This allows for the introduction of different functional groups onto the amine molecule.

2. Amine oxidation: Amines can be oxidized to form amine oxides or further oxidized to form nitro compounds. This reaction is commonly achieved using oxidizing agents such as peroxides or metal oxides.

3. Amine reduction: Amines can be reduced to form secondary or tertiary amines, or even to primary amines from nitro compounds. Reducing agents such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) or catalytic hydrogenation can be used for these reactions.

4. Amine condensation: Amines can undergo condensation reactions, combining with other compounds to form imines, enamines, or Schiff bases. These reactions are often used in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and pharmaceuticals.

5. Amine alkylation and acylation: Amines can be alkylated or acylated to form N-alkyl or N-acyl amines, respectively. These reactions involve the addition of an alkyl or acyl group to the nitrogen atom of the amine.

Understanding amine chemistry is crucial for designing and synthesizing new molecules with specific properties and functions. It allows chemists to modify amine-containing compounds for various applications, including drug design, organic synthesis, and materials science.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 13 days ago

Rate, rate law, rate equation, the rate constant, the order of reaction with worked examples




Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of the rates of chemical reactions and the factors that influence those rates. It involves the measurement and analysis of reaction rates, the determination of reaction mechanisms, and the understanding of how reaction rates can be altered.

Here are some important concepts and topics in chemical kinetics at an advanced level:

1. Reaction Rate: The reaction rate represents how fast a reactant is consumed or how fast a product is formed in a chemical reaction. It is typically expressed as the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

2. Rate Law: The rate law for a chemical reaction relates the rate of the reaction to the concentrations of the reactants. It is determined experimentally and is expressed as a mathematical equation. The rate law shows the order of reaction with respect to each reactant and the overall order of the reaction.

3. Rate Constant: The rate constant (k) is a proportionality constant in the rate equation that quantifies the relationship between the rate of the reaction and the concentrations of the reactants. It is specific to a given reaction at a given temperature and is influenced by factors such as temperature, pressure, and catalysts.

4. Activation Energy: Activation energy (Ea) is the minimum energy required for a reaction to occur. It represents the energy barrier that must be overcome for reactant molecules to transform into products. The Arrhenius equation relates the rate constant to the activation energy and temperature.

5. Reaction Mechanisms: Reaction mechanisms describe the step-by-step sequence of elementary reactions that lead to the overall reaction. Elementary reactions involve the collision or interaction of individual molecules or atoms. Determining the reaction mechanism provides insight into the detailed pathway of the reaction.

6. Reaction Order: The reaction order of a reactant determines how changes in its concentration affect the reaction rate. The reaction order can be zero, first, second, or a combination of these orders. The overall reaction order is the sum of the individual reaction orders.

7. Catalysts: Catalysts are substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process. They provide an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy. Catalysts can significantly influence reaction rates and are extensively used in industrial processes.

8. Temperature and Reaction Rate: Temperature plays a crucial role in determining reaction rates. Increasing temperature generally increases the rate of a reaction by increasing the number of collisions and providing greater kinetic energy to overcome the activation energy barrier.

9. Reaction Rate Laws and Integrated Rate Laws: Reaction rate laws and integrated rate laws describe the relationship between reactant concentrations and time during a chemical reaction. They can be used to determine reaction orders, rate constants, and monitor the progress of a reaction.

10. Reaction Kinetics and Equilibrium: The study of reaction kinetics provides insights into the time-dependent behavior of chemical reactions. It helps in understanding how reaction rates change as a system approaches equilibrium and how reaction conditions can be manipulated to shift the equilibrium position.

These concepts represent a deeper level of understanding in chemical kinetics, and they are often explored in advanced level chemistry courses and research. The study of chemical kinetics is essential for understanding reaction mechanisms, designing efficient chemical processes, and predicting the behavior of chemical systems.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 13 days ago

Carbon and its compounds (hydrides, halides, oxides, Carbonic acids);
Silicon and its compounds (reaction of silicon dioxide with sodium hydroxide and hydrogen fluoric acid)
compounds of germanium, tin and lead (oxides, chlorides, nitrates)

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 13 days ago

mechanism of electrolysis, factors affecting selective discharge, application of electrolysis, extraction of sodium, preparation of sodium hydroxide, Faraday's laws of electrolysis

Here are some examples of applications of electrolysis:

1. Electroplating: Electroplating is a process that uses electrolysis to deposit a layer of metal onto the surface of an object. It is commonly used to enhance the appearance, protect against corrosion, or improve conductivity of objects. For example, jewelry, automotive parts, and electronic components undergo electroplating.

2. Electrorefining of Metals: Electrorefining is the process of purifying impure metals using electrolysis. Impure metal is used as the anode, and a pure metal or graphite rod is used as the cathode. Through electrolysis, the impurities are dissolved into the electrolyte or settle as a sludge, leaving a pure metal at the cathode. This process is used in the refining of copper, lead, and other metals.

3. Electrolytic Cells for Energy Storage: Electrolytic cells, such as electrolyzers, are used to store energy in the form of chemical compounds. For example, during periods of excess renewable energy production, electrolyzers can use the electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The hydrogen gas can be stored for later use as a fuel source in fuel cells or for powering vehicles.

4. Chlor-Alkali Industry: The chlor-alkali industry relies heavily on electrolysis. In this industry, electrolysis is used to produce chlorine gas, hydrogen gas, and alkali metal hydroxides (such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) simultaneously. These compounds have various industrial applications, including the production of bleach, detergents, paper, and textiles.

5. Electrolysis in Water Treatment: Electrolysis can be used for water treatment and disinfection. By applying an electrical current through water, electrolysis can produce disinfecting agents such as chlorine or ozone. These agents can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens present in water.

6. Electrolysis in Electrochemical Cells: Electrochemical cells, such as batteries and fuel cells, rely on electrochemical reactions driven by electrolysis. For example, rechargeable batteries like lithium-ion batteries use electrolysis during the charging process, allowing the flow of ions between electrodes.

7. Electrolysis in Electrolytic Capacitors: Electrolytic capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for energy storage. These capacitors are constructed using an electrolyte, which undergoes electrolysis during operation. The electrolysis maintains the capacitance and enables energy storage in the capacitor.

These are just a few examples of the numerous applications of electrolysis in various industries and technological advancements. Electrolytic processes involving electrolysis have a significant impact on our daily lives, from manufacturing processes to energy storage and environmental solutions.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 13 days ago

the resistance of the electrolyte, the resistivity of electrolyte, the conductivity of electrolytes, molar conductivity, molar conductivity at infinite dilution, conductometric curves


Electroconductivity, in the context of A-Level studies, refers to the ability of a substance or solution to conduct electricity. Here are some key points about electroconductivity at the A-Level:

1. Electrical Conductivity: Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a substance allows the flow of electric current through it. Materials or solutions that are good conductors have high electrical conductivity, while those that impede the flow of current have low electrical conductivity.

2. Conductivity and Ions: The ability of a substance to conduct electricity is directly related to the presence of mobile charge carriers. In the case of solutions, the presence of ions in solution allows the solution to conduct electricity. In solid conductors, delocalized electrons enable the flow of current.

3. Electrolytes: Substances that readily form ions in solution are called electrolytes. Electrolytes can be strong or weak depending on their ability to ionize completely or partially. Strong electrolytes, such as strong acids or salts, produce a high concentration of ions and thus have high electrical conductivity. Weak electrolytes, on the other hand, produce a lower concentration of ions and have lower electrical conductivity.

4. Ionic Solutions: Ionic solutions, which contain ions in solution, exhibit higher electrical conductivity compared to non-ionic solutions. This is because ions act as charge carriers and facilitate the flow of current.

5. Ionic Compound Dissociation: When an ionic compound dissolves in water, it dissociates into its constituent ions. The dissociation of the compound into ions increases electrical conductivity, as the resulting solution contains mobile ions.

6. Conductivity Measurements: The electrical conductivity of a solution is typically measured using a conductivity meter. This device measures the ability of a solution to conduct an electric current and provides a numerical value for the conductivity.

7. Factors Affecting Conductivity: The electrical conductivity of a solution is influenced by several factors. Temperature, concentration of ions, and the presence of impurities can all affect the conductivity of a solution.

8. Applications: Understanding electroconductivity is important in various applications, such as in the design and operation of electrochemical cells, batteries, circuitry, and conductivity-based sensors. It is also relevant in fields like environmental science, where water quality is assessed based on its electrical conductivity.

These points provide a basic overview of electroconductivity at the A-Level. Further exploration of the topic can involve studying conductivity measurements, conductivity trends across the periodic table, and the relationship between conductivity and electrolysis or galvanic cells.u

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 13 days ago

Phases and factors affecting the phase of a substance, physical chemistry A-level.

Physical Equilibria, also known as physical phase equilibria, refers to the equilibrium between different physical states of matter such as solid, liquid, and gas. Here are some key points about physical equilibria:

1. Phase Transitions: Physical equilibria involve phase transitions, which are the changes of a substance from one phase to another. Common phase transitions include solidification (from liquid to solid), melting (from solid to liquid), vaporization (from liquid to gas), condensation (from gas to liquid), sublimation (from solid to gas), and deposition (from gas to solid).

2. Equilibrium Conditions: For a physical equilibrium to be established, the rates of the forward and backward phase transitions must be equal. This means that the amount and concentration of each phase remain constant over time.

3. Equilibrium Temperature: Each phase transition occurs at a specific temperature, known as the equilibrium temperature. This temperature depends on the pressure and composition of the system.

4. Phase Equilibrium Diagrams: Phase equilibrium diagrams, such as the water phase diagram or the phase diagram of a substance, provide a graphical representation of the conditions at which different phases coexist in equilibrium. These diagrams show the temperature and pressure ranges for each phase and the boundaries between them.

5. Triple Point: The triple point on a phase equilibrium diagram represents the unique set of conditions (temperature and pressure) at which all three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) of a substance can coexist in equilibrium.

6. Critical Point: The critical point is the temperature and pressure above which a substance can no longer exist as a distinct liquid phase, regardless of pressure. At the critical point, the liquid and gas phases are indistinguishable and merge into a supercritical fluid.

7. Phase Equilibrium Calculations: Thermodynamic models and equations, such as the Clapeyron equation or the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, are used to calculate and predict phase equilibrium conditions. These calculations require knowledge of properties such as enthalpy, entropy, and temperature.

8. Applications: Understanding physical equilibria is important in various fields, including material science, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and atmospheric science. It helps in designing processes, predicting phase behavior, and optimizing the production and use of substances.

Physical equilibria play a crucial role in various natural and technological processes, and studying their behavior is fundamental to understanding the physical properties and transformations of matter.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
1 Views · 13 days ago

Describes ionic, covalent, dative bonds, bond polarity and polarization of bonds suitable students taking chemistry at advanced level of education


Ionic bonds:
Ionic bonds are formed between two atoms when one atom donates one or more electrons to another atom. This transfer of electrons leads to the formation of ions - positively charged cations and negatively charged anions. The oppositely charged ions are then attracted to each other, resulting in the formation of an ionic bond. Ionic bonds typically occur between a metal and a non-metal.

Covalent bonds:
Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This sharing of electrons allows both atoms to achieve a stable electron configuration, similar to the noble gases. Covalent bonds typically occur between non-metals.

Dative bonds (also known as coordinate covalent bonds):
Dative bonds occur when both electrons in a shared pair come from the same atom. In other words, one atom donates both electrons to the bond, while the other atom does not contribute any electrons. Dative bonds can be thought of as a special case of covalent bonds, where one atom supplies both electrons. This type of bonding is commonly found in Lewis acid-base reactions.

Bond polarity:
Bond polarity refers to the unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms in a covalent bond. This unequal sharing occurs when one atom has a higher electronegativity (tendency to attract electrons) than the other atom. The difference in electronegativity leads to a separation of charges, creating a polar bond. The atom with higher electronegativity will have a partial negative charge (δ-) while the other atom will have a partial positive charge (δ+).

Polarization of bonds:
Polarization of bonds refers to the distortion of the electron cloud in a chemical bond due to the influence of external or internal forces. This can occur when a more electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud towards itself, causing an uneven distribution of electron density along the bond. Bond polarization can lead to the formation of partial charges or dipoles within a molecule.

Students taking chemistry at an advanced level of education will study these concepts in greater detail and explore their applications in various chemical reactions, organic chemistry, molecular geometry, and spectroscopy.

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 13 days ago

The HTML editor in Visual Studio has a lot of built-in features you may not be aware of. On top of that, an extension specifically made for the HTML editor provides even more functionality. Join Mads Kristensen as he takes you through a brief tour to show how you can get the most out of Visual Studio when building web applications.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 13 days ago

Suitable for Advance level students tacking physical chemistry: the video describe how to use Raoult's laws to calculate the composition and vapour pressures of components in the ideal mixtures

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 13 days ago

#ogapromoug #ssemujunganda
Deputy Speaker tells Ssemujju Nganda to prove that President Museveni owns a school

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 13 days ago

An exponential equation is an equation in the form of y = ab^x, where a and b are constants and x is the variable.

The variable x is typically the exponent, and the base b is usually a constant greater than 1. The constant a is the initial value or y-intercept of the exponential function.

Exponential equations are used to model relationships where the value of y grows or decays exponentially with respect to x. They are commonly used in finance, population growth, radioactive decay, and other natural phenomena.

The general form of an exponential equation is:

y = ab^x

where:
- y is the dependent variable or output
- x is the independent variable or input
- a is the initial value or y-intercept
- b is the base or growth/decay factor

Examples of exponential equations:

1. Population Growth:
y = 1000 * 1.03^x
where the initial population is 1000 and it grows at a rate of 3% per year.

2. Radioactive Decay:
y = 500 * 0.9^x
where an initial amount of 500 radioactive particles decays at a rate of 10% per hour.

3. Compound Interest:
y = 1000 * (1 + 0.05)^x
where an initial investment of $1000 grows at an annual interest rate of 5%.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 13 days ago

General CHS 102 - History and Development of Organic Chemistry....For Private Tutoring:Contact Me: +256787503215

Landus Mumbere Expedito
24 Views · 13 days ago

This lecture is about inductive effect in organic chemistry. I will teach you the super concept of inductive effect in chemistry. Also, I will teach the factors effecting inductive effect. At the end of this lecture, I will teach you how to solve questions of inductive effect.

To learn more, watch this lecture till the end.

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Electromeric effect: https://youtu.be/unCd-qIxH_o



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Landus Mumbere Expedito
1 Views · 13 days ago

Stoichiometry Calculations involving Equation of Reactions" Pt 1

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 13 days ago

chemistry of period 3 for Advanced level students

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 13 days ago

Advanced level chemistry, also known as A-level chemistry, is a higher level of study in the field of chemistry. It generally refers to the study of chemistry at the post-secondary level, either in high school or college.

In advanced level chemistry, students build upon their knowledge of basic chemistry concepts and theories and delve deeper into more complex topics. They study topics such as atomic structure, chemical bonding, thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibrium, redox reactions, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and spectroscopy.

The curriculum typically includes both theoretical and practical components. Students carry out laboratory experiments to demonstrate chemical principles and gain hands-on experience with various techniques and instruments. They also learn to analyze and interpret data and understand the scientific method.

The study of advanced level chemistry is essential for those pursuing higher education or careers in chemical sciences, medicine, pharmacy, environmental science, materials science, forensic science, and many other related fields. It provides a strong foundation for understanding the behavior and interactions of matter and the chemical processes that occur in the physical world.

To excel in advanced level chemistry, students need to have a solid understanding of basic chemistry concepts and strong analytical and problem-solving skills. They should also be able to apply mathematical skills to solve calculations and equations related to chemical reactions and properties.

Overall, advanced level chemistry is a challenging and comprehensive course that equips students with a deep understanding of chemistry and prepares them for further study or careers in the field.

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 14 days ago

Former US President Donald Trump raised a storm of criticism from the White House and Western officials. He suggested he would not defend NATO allies who failed to spend enough on defence. Watch this video for all details.

#DonaldTrump #NATO #WION

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WION The World is One News examines global issues with in-depth analysis. We provide much more than the news of the day. Our aim is to empower people to explore their world. With our Global headquarters in New Delhi, we bring you news on the hour, by the hour. We deliver information that is not biased. We are journalists who are neutral to the core and non-partisan when it comes to world politics. People are tired of biased reportage and we stand for a globalized united world. So for us, the World is truly One.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 14 days ago

molecular, ionic, atomic and metallic solids

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 14 days ago

electrode potential, standard electrode potential, factors affecting electrode potential, factors affecting standard electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode, measurent of electrode potentials, emf cells and calculations.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 14 days ago

Nucleic Acids such as DNA and RNA are very important molecules in the bodies of living organisms.

This video gives an introduction looking at the monomers of nucleic Acids which are nucleotides ie the components of nucleotides, how the components combine to form nucleotides, and finally how the nucleotides combine to form nucleic Acids.

The next episodes will be about specific nucleic Acids ie RNA and DNA. So please subscribe so that you are notified whenever I post.

Always leave a comment
Thanks and may God bless you.

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 14 days ago

The lawmakers approved the measure in a 70-29 vote that exceeded the chamber’s 60-vote threshold for passage and sent the legislation to the House. Twenty-two Republicans joined most Democrats to support the bill.

The legislation includes $61bn for Ukraine, $14bn for Israel in its war on Gaza and $4.83bn to support partners in the Asia Pacific, including Taiwan, and deter aggression by China.

It would also provide $9.15bn in humanitarian assistance to civilians in Gaza and the occupied West Bank, Ukraine and other conflict zones around the globe.

Al Jazeera's White House correspondent Kimberly Halkett has the latest from Washington, DC.

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Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 14 days ago

As Moscow continues to press its war of attrition along Ukraine’s eastern border, ammunition is in constant demand. After Russia's full scale invasion, Kyiv's European allies stepped up production but arms manufacturers are struggling to keep Ukraine's army supplied. Now, German arms company Rheinmetall is building a new factory and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and Danish prime minister Mette Fredriksen are lending their full support.

For some analysis, we talk to Gustav Gressel. He's with the European Council on Foreign Relations in Berlin.

#Germany #Weapons #Factory

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Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 14 days ago

Never miss a talk! SUBSCRIBE to the TEDx channel: http://bit.ly/1FAg8hB

Just before his passing on January 10, 2014, Sam Berns was a Junior at Foxboro High School in Foxboro, Massachusetts, where he achieved highest honors and was a percussion section leader in the high school marching band. He also achieved the rank of Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America. Sam was diagnosed with Progeria, a rare, rapid aging disease, at the age of 2. He is featured in the Emmy award-winning documentary Life According to Sam, which premiered on HBO on October 21, 2013, 2 days before his 17th birthday.

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 15 days ago

Learn how to use your online account to check your eligibility for naturalization, complete the online form, upload evidence, and pay your fee. You’ll also learn how to track and manage your case after filing.

Austins Pesarlai
8 Views · 15 days ago

Learn how to apply for unemployment benefits using UI Online.

Austins Pesarlai
10 Views · 15 days ago

This video shows users how to apply for one or more of the following programs: CalWORKS CalFresh, and Medi-Cal.

Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 15 days ago

Are you currently receiving CalFresh benefits? Learn how to submit your CalFresh Eligibility Status Report (AKA the SAR 7) to maintain your benefits so you can keep receiving free money for groceries each month!

Submit your Sar 7 online: https://www.getcalfresh.org/sar7
For LA County residents: https://yourbenefit.laclrs.org

Connect with the CalFresh Help Clinic for support!
Website: https://basicneeds.sfsu.edu/calfresh-help-clinic
Email: calfresh@sfsu.edu

Learn about free food and housing resources for SF State students: https://basicneeds.sfsu.edu/

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 15 days ago

This video walks users through the process of submitting their Medi-Cal renewal on BenefitsCal.

Austins Pesarlai
7 Views · 15 days ago

This video shows users how to submit a CalFresh recertification on BenefitsCal.

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 15 days ago

Learn the basics of navigating through the Apricot system including how to log in, view records, submit invoices, complete demographic reporting and performance reports.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 17 days ago

Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue that forms the skeletal system of the body. It is a hard and dense tissue that provides support, protection, and movement to the body, as well as housing and protecting vital organs.

Bone tissue is made up of specialized cells, called osteocytes, embedded within a matrix composed of collagen fibers and mineral salts, predominantly calcium and phosphate. This combination of organic and inorganic materials gives bone its unique properties of strength and hardness.

Bones are classified into two types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone makes up the outer layer of bones and provides strength and protection, while spongy bone is found in the interior of bones and provides structural support. Both types of bone tissue contain osteons, which are cylindrical structures composed of concentric layers called lamellae that surround a central canal containing blood vessels and nerves.

Bone tissue undergoes continuous remodeling throughout life in a process called bone remodeling. This involves the removal of old or damaged bone tissue by cells called osteoclasts and the formation of new bone tissue by cells called osteoblasts. This constant remodeling allows bones to adapt to mechanical stress, repair damage, and maintain optimal strength and structure.

In addition to its mechanical functions, bone tissue also serves as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, which are essential for various physiological processes in the body. When blood calcium levels are low, bone tissue releases calcium into the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis.

Overall, bone tissue plays a crucial role in providing support and protection to the body, facilitating movement, and contributing to mineral homeostasis.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 17 days ago

English language lesson centered around the topic of modern communication technology:

Lesson Objective: By the end of this lesson, you will be able to discuss various aspects of modern communication technology and express your opinions on its impact.

1. Vocabulary:
a. Communication: The imparting or exchanging of information or news.
b. Technology: The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.
c. Digitalization: The process of converting information into a digital format.
d. Social media: Platforms or websites that enable users to create and share content.
e. Connectivity: The state of being connected or interconnected.
f. Cybersecurity: Measures taken to protect computer systems from theft or damage.

2. Discussion:
Begin the lesson by initiating a conversation with your students about modern communication technology. Ask them questions such as:
a. What are some examples of modern communication technology?
b. How do these technologies impact our daily lives?
c. What advantages and disadvantages do you see in using these technologies?
d. How has communication technology evolved over the years?

3. Reading Activity:
Provide the students with a short article or passage related to modern communication technology. Ask them to read it and identify any new vocabulary words they encounter. After reading, discuss the main points and ask for their opinions on the topic.

4. Speaking Activity:
Divide the students into pairs or small groups. Assign each group a specific aspect of modern communication technology, such as social media, smartphones, or online messaging apps. Ask them to discuss the pros and cons of their assigned topic and present their findings to the class.

5. Writing Task:
Ask the students to write a short essay or opinion piece on the topic of modern communication technology. Encourage them to express their thoughts on its impact on society, relationships, and personal wellbeing. Remind them to use vocabulary and phrases related to the topic.

6. Extension Activity:
To further engage the students, you can assign them a project to create a presentation or poster on a specific modern communication technology. They can use visuals, statistics, and facts to support their findings.

Remember to encourage participation, provide support, and create a positive learning environment throughout the lesson.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 17 days ago

Reaction of alkynes with water
Reaction of alkynes with ammoniacal silver nitrate or ammoniacal copper I chloride
distinguishing between terminal alkynes and those with the tripple bond in the middle of the chain

Austins Pesarlai
16 Views · 18 days ago

Mohamed Hoblos, hailing from Lebanon, and living in Sydney (Australia) is famous for his ability to deliver passionate, emotional and powerful talks and reminders on various topics regarding the muslims of today. He have conquered many hearts with his preachings, especially the hearts of the young muslims. He have given lectures in many countries around the world and he regularly make short videos on the muslim media "One Path Network", as for example the video with Ali Banat (may Allah give him Jannah) "Gifted with Cancer - Ali Banat". Mohamed Hoblos was part also of the Sidney Deen Team which is an Islamic radio programme and he took part also on the Islamic short movie "Last Chance".
Also an important thing to underline is that Mohamed Hoblos is not a Shaykh and that can lead in using a hadith that is weak, and he maybe thought was sahih etc. or he can say a hadith not in the exact form and that may cause a change on the meaning of the hadith etc. , for this reason we advice you to watch and share the videos of Mohamed Hoblos only from our Channel because we cut those parts.

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-"Lectures From Sheikh Abu Talha", a Sheikh that delivers very passionate, powerful and emotional lectures, and is the student of the great scholar of Islam "Sheikh Al Albani" !

https://www.youtube.com/channe....l/UC75glk2u0Ykh4Wk7D

-"Lectures From Sheikh Muhammad Feiz" a Sheikh graduated from Madinah University and that have a very very unique style of speeching with very powerful and emotional lectures !

https://www.youtube.com/channe....l/UCws7HAU9wsnD0e7b9

This channel is a collection of lectures from brother Mohamed Hoblos !
Note : this channel is not Mohamed Hoblos official page.

- Feel free to reupload on your Social Media any video of this Channel.


In this Channel you may find videos of : Omar El Banna , Ali Banat , Mohamad Nagi , Bilal Dannoun , Kamal Saleh , Dawah Man , Qari Saad Nomani , Ali Dawah , Sajid Umar , Malaz Majanni , Haroon Kanj , Steve Dabliz .

In this Channel you will not find videos of : Sulaiman Moola , Abdul Hamid Mishk , Ahmed Deedat , Omar El Ghaz , Mishary Rashid Al Afasy , Abdulrahman Mossad , Ibrahim Dadoun , Mufti Menk , Yasir Qadhi , Omar Suleiman , Zakir Naik , Nouman Ali Khan , Ibraheem Menk , Mohammad Al-Naqwi , Jamal AbdiNasir , Yusha Evans , Adnan Rashid , Musa Adnan , Abdulghaffar Wardhere , Abu Usamah , Ibrahim Khan , Hamza Yusuf , Ustaz Hamza , Ali Jabir , Sajid Umar , Abu Bakr Shatri , Muhammad Al-Luhaidan , Alomgir Ali , Abdur Raheem McCarthy , The 3 Muslims , Zaid Shanti , Hazza al-Balushi , Osman Bostanci , Okasha Kameny , Wahaj Tarin , Shaykh Fahad (Imam Masjid Qiblatain) , Saad al-Ghamdi , Said Rageah , Abdul Aziz az Zahrani , Abdur Rashid Sufi , Muhammad Jibreel , Muhammad Al-Muqit , Youssef Edghouch , Maher Zain , Abu Muhammad Saleh , Hamza Tzortzis , Assim al hakeem , Khalid Rashid , Salih El Munajjid , Sheikh Abu Talha , Gabriel Al Romaani , Salih Al Fawzan , Sheikh Muhammad Feiz , Bilal Philips , Khalid Yasin , Abu Bakr Zoud , Uthman ibn Farooq , Bilal Assad , Shady Al Suleiman , Muhammad Abdul Jabbar , Saalih al Luhaydan , Rabee bin Hadee Madkhalee , Abdurrazak al Badr , One Message Foundation , Yusuf Estes , Othman al Khamees , Nasiruddin Al Albani , Mohammed Hijab , Smile2Jannah , Abdul Razzak al Badr , Abdul Wahhab al Banna , Sheikh Saeed Raslan , Abdulilah Limani , Mohamad Khalid , Jalal Chami , Abdelkarim Salim , Mohamad Doar , Kamal Taleb , Dr. Omar Najjarine , Safwan Dadoun , Farhan Bin Rafee Ahmad , Nassim Abdi , Sh. Abdul Haleem , Murtaza Khan , Sajid Lipham , Irfan Salihu , Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen , Muhammad Al Arifi , Abdurraheem Green , Mohammad al Kurdi , Lawrence Brown , Muhammad Hussein Yacoub , Ahmed Ali , Ridjal Ahmed , Hisham Al Arabi , Sherif Mostafa , Abdur Rehman As-Sudais , Yasser Al Dosari , Islam Sobhi , Maher Bin Hamad Al Muaiqly , Saud Shuraim , Bandar Baleelah , Abdullah Juhanny , Mansour Salimi , Abdur Rehman Al-Ossi , Sheikh Saad Al Ghamdi , Mevlan Kurtishi , Noreen Muhammad Siddiq , Khalid Al Jaleel , Ahmad Al Nufais , Muzammil Hasballah , Nasser Al Qatami , Fares Abbad , Hazza Alblushi , Abdullah Al Matrood , Ahmed Al Ajmi , Fatih Seferagic , Idrees Akbar , The Deen Show , AbdulBary Yahya , Siraj Wahhaj , Haitham al Haddad , Adam Saleh , Abu Mussab Wajdi Akkar , Suhaib Webb , AbdulRahman Hassan , Kamal el-Mekki , Asrar Rashid , Mufti Abu Layth , Said Rageah , Talk Islam , David Wood , Apostate Prophet , Sam Shamoun , The Muslim Skeptik , Daniel Haqiqatjou , Fariq Naik , Jay Smith , Tim Humble , Farid Responds , Subboor Ahmad , The Sunnah Guy , etc.

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 18 days ago

In this introductory lesson we will examine the 14 different things and events whose origins are found in the book of Genesis.

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#Genesis #BibleTalk #BibleTalkTV

Austins Pesarlai
5 Views · 18 days ago

CHRISTMAS ON THE STREET. Teacher Mpamire On The Street

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 18 days ago

Parts of flowers, pollen grain and ova formation, structures of mature pollen grain and ovum, pollination and fertilization, agents of pollination, advantages of sexual reproduction, means employed by plants to limit self-fertilization, dispersal and agents of dispersal, seed dormancy, causes of seed dormancy, how to break seed dormancy.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 18 days ago

Male and female reproductive systems, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, fertilization, advantages of internal fertilization, menstrual cycle, events in pregnancy, the function, structure, and adaptations of placenta, hormonal control of birth, causes of infertility in male and female




Reproduction in animals refers to the biological process through which animals produce offspring, ensuring the continuation of their species. There are various modes of reproduction in animals, including sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.

1. ****ual Reproduction:
****ual reproduction involves the fusion of genetic material from two parents, typically a male and a female, to produce offspring. This process includes several steps:

- Mating: The male and female individuals come together for copulation, either through direct contact or via specialized reproductive organs.
- Fertilization: The fusion of sperm and egg, resulting in the formation of a zygote.
- Development: The zygote undergoes embryonic development and eventually matures into a new individual.
- Gestation: In many species, particularly mammals, the female carries and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus internally before giving birth.

****ual reproduction contributes to genetic diversity as offspring inherit a combination of traits from both parents.

2. Asexual Reproduction:
Asexual reproduction involves the production of offspring without the involvement of gametes (sperm and egg) or the fusion of genetic material from two parents. Types of asexual reproduction include:

- Binary Fission: The parent organism divides into two equal-sized daughter cells. This is commonly observed in microorganisms such as bacteria.
- Budding: A small outgrowth or bud forms on the parent organism and eventually detaches to become a new, genetically identical individual. It is seen in organisms like hydra and yeast.
- Fragmentation: The parent organism breaks into fragments, with each piece regenerating into a complete new individual. This is observed in some invertebrates such as starfish and planarians.
- Parthenogenesis: Offspring are produced from unfertilized eggs, where the female gamete develops into an embryo without fertilization. It is seen in some reptiles, insects, and fish.

Asexual reproduction typically leads to offspring that are genetically identical or very similar to the parent.

The mode of reproduction in animals varies across different species and is influenced by factors such as environmental conditions, availability of mates, and evolutionary adaptations. ****ual reproduction is more common among animals as it promotes genetic diversity, increasing the chances of survival in changing environments.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 18 days ago

Temperature regulation in animals is the process by which animals maintain their internal body temperature within a narrow range to match the external environment. This is crucial for survival and maintaining proper bodily functions. There are two main types of animals in terms of temperature regulation, endotherms and ectotherms.

1. Endotherms:
Endotherms, also known as warm-blooded animals, are those that maintain a constant internal body temperature by generating heat through metabolic processes. Examples of endotherms are mammals and birds. These animals have a complex system of thermoregulation that enables them to maintain their body temperature within a narrow range, regardless of the external temperature.

Endotherms have several mechanisms for temperature regulation, such as:
- Shivering: Muscular contractions generate heat and raise body temperature.
- Sweating: Evaporation of sweat cools the body down.
- Vasodilation and vasoconstriction: The dilation and constriction of blood vessels regulate heat loss or gain.
- Behavioral regulation: Seeking shade or exposure to the sun to regulate body temperature.

2. Ectotherms:
Ectotherms, also known as cold-blooded animals, are those that rely on the external temperature to regulate their body temperature. Examples of ectotherms are reptiles, amphibians, and fish. These animals do not generate heat internally but instead rely on the environment to provide heat or to facilitate heat loss.

Ectotherms have different ways of regulating their body temperature, such as:
- Basking: Exposure to the sun to increase body temperature.
- Burrowing: Going underground to avoid high temperatures.
- Constriction and dilation: Constricting or dilating blood vessels to regulate blood flow and heat loss.

In summary, animals use different mechanisms to regulate their body temperature depending on whether they are endothermic or ectothermic. Both types of animals have adaptations to maintain their internal body temperature within a narrow range to ensure proper bodily functions and survival in their respective environments.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 18 days ago

Significance of temperature regulation, types of temperature regulation, endotherms, warm blooded, ectoderms,, cold blooded, skin, responses of humans to cold and hot environment, behavioral responses, temperature regulation in plants, lower and upper critical temperatures, lower and upper lethal temperatures

Temperature regulation in animals is the process by which animals maintain their internal body temperature within a narrow range to match the external environment. This is crucial for survival and maintaining proper bodily functions. There are two main types of animals in terms of temperature regulation, endotherms and ectotherms.

1. Endotherms:
Endotherms, also known as warm-blooded animals, are those that maintain a constant internal body temperature by generating heat through metabolic processes. Examples of endotherms are mammals and birds. These animals have a complex system of thermoregulation that enables them to maintain their body temperature within a narrow range, regardless of the external temperature.

Endotherms have several mechanisms for temperature regulation, such as:
- Shivering: Muscular contractions generate heat and raise body temperature.
- Sweating: Evaporation of sweat cools the body down.
- Vasodilation and vasoconstriction: The dilation and constriction of blood vessels regulate heat loss or gain.
- Behavioral regulation: Seeking shade or exposure to the sun to regulate body temperature.

2. Ectotherms:
Ectotherms, also known as cold-blooded animals, are those that rely on the external temperature to regulate their body temperature. Examples of ectotherms are reptiles, amphibians, and fish. These animals do not generate heat internally but instead rely on the environment to provide heat or to facilitate heat loss.

Ectotherms have different ways of regulating their body temperature, such as:
- Basking: Exposure to the sun to increase body temperature.
- Burrowing: Going underground to avoid high temperatures.
- Constriction and dilation: Constricting or dilating blood vessels to regulate blood flow and heat loss.

In summary, animals use different mechanisms to regulate their body temperature depending on whether they are endothermic or ectothermic. Both types of animals have adaptations to maintain their internal body temperature within a narrow range to ensure proper bodily functions and survival in their respective environments.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 18 days ago

Excretion is the process by which organisms remove waste products from their bodies to maintain homeostasis. It is an essential function that helps regulate the internal environment of living organisms.

1. Purpose of Excretion:
- Elimination of metabolic waste: Cells produce waste products as a result of their normal metabolic processes. Excretion removes these waste substances, such as carbon dioxide, urea, and excess ions like ammonia, to prevent their accumulation and toxicity.
- Maintenance of osmotic balance: Many organisms excrete excess water and salts to maintain proper osmotic balance within their bodies. This helps prevent dehydration or electrolyte imbalances.

2. Organs and Systems involved in Excretion:
- Kidneys: In most vertebrates, including humans, kidneys play a key role in excretion. They filter blood, remove waste products, regulate water and electrolyte balance, and produce urine.
- Lungs: In humans and many other organisms, the lungs excrete carbon dioxide and water vapor during the process of breathing.
- Skin: Sweating helps remove water, salts, and some nitrogenous wastes like urea from the body.
- Liver: The liver is involved in the excretion of certain waste products, like bilirubin and some drugs, as part of its detoxification functions.

3. Excretion in Plants:
- Plants excrete waste products through various mechanisms, including the shedding of leaves, bark, and fruit.
- Some plants also excrete excess salts through salt glands in leaves.

4. Excretion in Single-celled Organisms:
- Single-celled organisms, like bacteria and protists, excrete waste products directly into their environment.
- Amoebas, for example, excrete metabolic wastes through the cell membrane.

5. Importance of Excretion:
- Eliminating waste products helps maintain proper internal balance and prevent toxic buildup.
- Rebalancing water and ion levels is crucial for cellular functioning and overall homeostasis.

In summary, excretion is the process by which organisms eliminate waste products. It involves various organs and systems, including kidneys, lungs, skin, and liver. Excretion is important for maintaining internal balance and preventing toxin buildup in organisms.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 18 days ago

Fully discussed revision questions

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 18 days ago

Fully discussed revision questions

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 18 days ago

Excretion and osmoregulation in marine invertebrates and vertebrates, excretion and osmoregulation fresh water animals and fish, excretion and osmoregulation in insects, excretion in plants, adaptations of xerophytes and halophytes


Excretion and osmoregulation are closely related processes that work together to maintain the balance of water and dissolved substances, such as salts, inside an organism's body.

1. Excretion:
Excretion is the process of removing metabolic waste products from an organism's body. These waste products include substances like carbon dioxide, urea, ammonia, and excess ions. Excretion helps prevent the accumulation of toxic substances and maintains the proper functioning of an organism. Examples of organs involved in excretion are the kidneys, lungs, skin, and liver.

2. Osmoregulation:
Osmoregulation is the process by which an organism regulates the balance of water and dissolved substances in its body fluids. It ensures that the concentration of solutes inside the body remains within a certain range, maintaining homeostasis. Osmoregulation involves mechanisms for retaining or excreting water and salts to maintain the proper balance.

3. Relationship between Excretion and Osmoregulation:
Excretion and osmoregulation are interconnected processes that work together to maintain the internal balance of an organism.
- Waste products, such as urea and ammonia, are excreted by the kidneys, which also play a significant role in regulating the concentration of water and ions in the body.
- The lungs, through respiration, eliminate carbon dioxide and also help regulate the body's acid-base balance.
- The skin excretes water and salts through sweating, which helps cool the body and maintain proper levels of hydration.
- The liver is involved in excreting waste products, such as bilirubin and drugs, and plays a role in maintaining the balance of various nutrients and metabolites.

Osmoregulation ensures that the concentration of water and dissolved substances in the body is maintained within a narrow range. This is achieved through various mechanisms, including the control of water intake and output, ion regulation, and adjustment of excretory processes. Excretory organs, such as the kidneys, play a vital role in osmoregulation by filtering and selectively reabsorbing substances to maintain water and salt balance.

In summary, excretion and osmoregulation are interconnected processes that work together to maintain the balance of water and dissolved substances in an organism's body. Excretion removes waste products, while osmoregulation regulates the water and solute content to maintain proper internal balance, ensuring the overall health and well-being of the organism.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 18 days ago

definition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

⁣Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are two types of cells that make up all living organisms. They differ in their structural complexity and organization.

1. Structure:
- Prokaryotic cells: Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler in structure compared to eukaryotic cells. They lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Instead, their DNA is present in a region called the nucleoid, and they have few internal structures called ribosomes.
- Eukaryotic cells: Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex. They contain a well-defined nucleus that houses the DNA. In addition, eukaryotic cells possess various membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and others.

2. DNA Organization:
- Prokaryotic cells: Prokaryotes have a single, circular DNA molecule floating freely in the cytoplasm. It lacks the organization into chromosomes seen in eukaryotic cells.
- Eukaryotic cells: Eukaryotes have linear DNA molecules that are organized into multiple chromosomes, typically found within the nucleus.

3. Membrane-bound Organelles:
- Prokaryotic cells: Prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles. They have some specialized regions within their cytoplasm, such as ribosomes for protein synthesis, but these structures are not surrounded by membranes.
- Eukaryotic cells: Eukaryotes possess membrane-bound organelles that perform specific functions. These include the nucleus (DNA storage and transcription), mitochondria (energy production via cellular respiration), endoplasmic reticulum (protein synthesis and lipid metabolism), and golgi apparatus (modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins).

4. Complexity:
- Prokaryotic cells: Prokaryotes are simpler in structure and organization, lacking compartmentalization. They can be found as unicellular organisms, such as bacteria and archaea.
- Eukaryotic cells: Eukaryotes are more complex, with compartmentalization provided by membrane-bound organelles. They can be found as both unicellular (e.g., yeast) and multicellular organisms (e.g., plants, animals, fungi).

In summary, prokaryotic cells are smaller, simpler, lack a nucleus, and lack membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells are larger, more complex, contain a nucleus, and possess membrane-bound organelles.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 18 days ago

1. What is locomotion in animals?
2. What are the different methods of locomotion employed by vertebrates?
3. How do mammals move about using their legs?
4. What adaptations do animals have for movement in extreme environments?
5. How do invertebrates like insects and spiders move about?
6. Why is locomotion important for animals?
7. Can animals switch between methods of locomotion?

Answers:
1. Locomotion is the ability of living organisms to move around from one place to another.
2. Vertebrates use various methods of locomotion. For instance, birds and bats have wings that enable them to fly, while fish have fins and tails that help them swim. Mammals, including humans, have legs that allow them to walk, run, or climb.
3. Mammals move by contracting their muscles to move their leg bones. They also adjust their gait and speed depending on the terrain, incline, or other factors.
4. Animals have specific adaptations to move in extreme environments. For instance, polar bears have large, webbed paws that help them walk on ice, and animals in the desert can drink water from their food sources to conserve energy and reduce water loss.
5. Invertebrates use a variety of methods to move. For example, jellyfish and sea anemones contract and expand their muscles to propel themselves through the water, and insects and spiders have multiple legs that enable them to walk, run, or jump.
6. Locomotion is important for animals to find food, escape predators, and navigate their environments. Animals that cannot move well usually do not survive long.
7. Yes, animals can switch between methods of locomotion. For instance, some reptiles can walk or crawl on land and also swim in water.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 18 days ago

Biceps and triceps, stability and locomotion in tetrapod, locomotion in fish, stability in fish and how it is counteracted, locomotion in birds, adaptations of birds to locomotion, fine structure of muscles, how muscles contract.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 18 days ago

Types of skeleton, locomotion in earthworm, locomotion in insects, human skeleton, function of bones, types of muscles and their differences and joints.

Locomotion is the ability of living organisms to move around from one place to another. Animals have developed different mechanisms and body structures to enable them to move in different environments.

Vertebrates, or animals with backbones, employ various methods of locomotion. Birds and bats, for example, have wings that enable them to fly, while fish have fins and tails that help them swim. Mammals, including humans, have legs that allow them to walk, run, or climb. Other animals like snakes use their body muscles to crawl or slither.

Invertebrates, or animals without backbones, use a variety of methods to move. Jellyfish and sea anemones contract and expand their muscles to propel themselves through the water. Insects and spiders have multiple legs that enable them to walk, run, or jump.

Some animals have specific adaptations that allow them to move in extreme environments. For example, polar bears have large, webbed paws that help them walk on ice. Kangaroos use their powerful hind legs to hop across vast distances in the Australian outback.

Overall, locomotion is essential for animals to find food, escape predators, and navigate their environments.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 18 days ago

Well discussed structured questions from national exams

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 18 days ago

Terminologies (gene, allele, dominant gene, recessive genes, homozygous, heterozygous, back cross, test cross), monohybrid inheritance, sex determination and multiple alleles (ABO blood groups)

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 18 days ago

6 A-level paper 2 revision questions for photosynthesis


Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants make their own food using sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water. During photosynthesis, chlorophyll absorbs light energy and converts it into chemical energy which is stored in the form of glucose. Oxygen is also produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis. This process plays a significant role in maintaining the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 18 days ago

Coordination in animals 30 objective revision questions and answers

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 18 days ago

in this tutorial, you will learn the laws of indices, and how to apply it to solve mathematics problems.
Remember that indices is the plural form of index, watch the video lesson and learn what it means and how to apply it to solve mathematical problems.

please click the subscription button as well as the bell icon to be notified each time I post educational videos.

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tebtalks
15 Views · 18 days ago

😍😘😘

Austins Pesarlai
4 Views · 18 days ago

Amazon is investing a billion dollars in new industrial technology, including Digit, a robot working in their Seattle Robotics Research and Development facility. Amazon says the robots will be used to support human employees, but labor experts and Amazon warehouse employees say they are concerned about the future of human work.

UPDATE: This story’s headline and description have been updated to include Amazon’s statement that its robots are meant to support human employees, not replace them.
 
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#nbcnews #amazon #robots

Austins Pesarlai
3 Views · 18 days ago

The Uganda National Examinations Board has directed District Education officers to identify two suitable centers for those who do not pass their O-levels, under the old lower secondary school curriculum. The identified centers will be the only ones whose portals will be able to register candidates. The exams are scheduled for between June and July 2024. The current senior four-holiday makers are the last batch to study under the old curriculum.


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tebtalks
9 Views · 18 days ago

😍

Austins Pesarlai
6 Views · 19 days ago

These top 10 future inventions would change our concept of things we once thought impossible!

Francis Mpatswe
7 Views · 19 days ago

Netanyahu Rejects "Delusional" Hamas Terms for Ceasefire Deal | Vantage with Palki Sharma

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that total victory in Gaza was within reach. This comes as he rejected the latest offer from Hamas for a ceasefire to ensure the return of hostages still held in the strip. What will be the cost of this victory? Palki Sharma tells you.

---

Israel-Hamas War | Benjamin Netanyahu | Gaza | Palestine | Firstpost | World News | Vantage | Palki Sharma

#israelhamaswar #benjaminnetanyahu #gaza #palestine #firstpost #vantageonfirstpost #palkisharma #worldnews

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By breaking stereotypes, Vantage aims to challenge conventional wisdom and present an alternative view on global affairs, defying the norm and opening the door to new perspectives. The show goes beyond the headlines to uncover the hidden stories – making Vantage a destination for thought-provoking ideas.

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Francis Mpatswe
7 Views · 19 days ago

During a press briefing on Thursday, Pentagon Spokesperson Major General Pat Ryder answered reporter questions on the outcomes of US strikes in Iraq and Syria.

Fuel your success with Forbes. Gain unlimited access to premium journalism, including breaking news, groundbreaking in-depth reported stories, daily digests and more. Plus, members get a front-row seat at members-only events with leading thinkers and doers, access to premium video that can help you get ahead, an ad-light experience, early access to select products including NFT drops and more:

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Francis Mpatswe
5 Views · 19 days ago

A volcano erupted in southwest Iceland for the second time this year, making it the sixth outbreak on the Reykjanes peninsula since 2021.

#volcano #Reykjanespeninsula #Iceland #live #Reuters #news

Keep up with the latest news from around the world: https://www.reuters.com/

tebtalks
4 Views · 19 days ago

Watch until the end to see how crazy the last island is
Play my ALL NEW MrBeast’s Disco Dop level in Stumble Guys today! Download now to also build your own MrBeast level in the Workshop: https://stumbleguys.onelink.me/Zh4x/MrBeastYT. [SWEEPSTAKES ENTRY PERIOD HAS ENDED]

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Francis Mpatswe
5 Views · 19 days ago

Rep. Mike Waltz, R-Fla., on growing conflict between the U.S. and Iran, and a phone call between Putin and Xi Jinping. #FoxNews

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tebtalks
4 Views · 19 days ago

Russia's election commission has rejected anti-war challenger Boris Nadezhdin as a candidate in next month's presidential vote.

Mr Nadezhdin has been relatively critical of Vladimir Putin's full-scale war in Ukraine when few dissenting voices have been tolerated in Russia.

He had tried to challenge claims by the election commission that more than 15% of the signatures he submitted with his candidate application were flawed.

But the commission rejected his bid.

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For more news, analysis and features visit: www.bbc.com/news

#RussiaElection #BBCNews

Francis Mpatswe
7 Views · 19 days ago

President Zelensky sacks Ukraine's commander-in-chief | BBC News

Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelensky has sacked the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces, Valerii Zaluzhnyi.

It follows speculation about a rift between the president and Gen Zaluzhnyi, who has led Ukraine's war effort since the conflict began.

The dismissal will be made official in a presidential decree.

The move marks the biggest change to Ukraine's military leadership since Russia's invasion in February 2022.

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For more news, analysis and features visit: www.bbc.com/news

#Ukraine #BBCNews

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 20 days ago

This video is about practicals for food tests.Please enjoy.

Title: Food Tests Practicals - Episode One: Test for Starch

Introduction:
Welcome to the first episode of Food Tests Practicals! In this episode, we will be conducting a simple test to detect the presence of starch in food items. Starch is a complex carbohydrate that is commonly found in foods such as potatoes, rice, bread, and pasta. By performing this test, we can identify if a particular food item contains starch.

Materials Needed:
1. Food items for testing (recommended: potato, bread, and rice)
2. Iodine solution
3. Test tubes
4. Dropper or pipette
5. Beaker or container for water bath
6. Water

Procedure:
1. Start by setting up a water bath. Fill a beaker or container with water and heat it until it reaches a gentle simmer.
2. Take the food items you wish to test (potato, bread, and rice) and cut small pieces of each. Ensure that the pieces are roughly the same size.
3. Label your test tubes with the names of the food items you are testing.
4. Place a piece of each food item into their respective labeled test tubes.
5. Add a few drops of iodine solution to each test tube using a dropper or pipette.
6. Observe the color change that occurs. Starch reacts with iodine to produce a dark blue or black color.

Results and Interpretation:
Positive Result - If the color of the solution changes to dark blue or black, it indicates the presence of starch in the tested food item.
Negative Result - If the color of the solution remains unchanged (brown or yellow), it suggests the absence of starch in the tested food item.

Conclusion:
In this episode of Food Tests Practicals, we performed a test to detect the presence of starch in food items using iodine solution. By observing the color change in the solution, we can determine if a food item contains starch. Starch is an essential carbohydrate in our diet, providing energy and serving as a storage form of glucose in plants. Stay tuned for more practical episodes on food tests to expand your knowledge of food science!

Francis Mpatswe
5 Views · 20 days ago

The Democratic Republic of Congo's government says it’s taken back control of a crucial town in the east.
Sake was surrounded by M23 rebels during heavy fighting with government troops.
Thousands of civilians have fled to the North Kivu capital Goma as the fighting intensifies.

Al Jazeera’s Barbara Angopa reports.

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#M23Rebels #GomaUnderThreat #CongoCrisis #EastCongoEscape #HumanitarianEmergency #ConflictZoneAlert #DRCUnrest #GomaEvacuation #DRCongo #DRC #DemocraticRepublicofCongo #M23 #Conflict #Armedforces

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 20 days ago

Questions are skillfully selected test and enhance understanding

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 20 days ago

Definition of homeostasis, mechanisms of homeostasis (negative feedback and positive feedback), components of efficient negative feed back mechanism, homeostasis of glucose, role of pancreas in homeostasis of glucose (i.e. production of insulin) and diabetes mellitus



Homeostasis is the ability of an organism or system to maintain a stable and constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment or physiological conditions. In other words, homeostasis is the process by which the body regulates and maintains equilibrium or balance within its internal environment, including temperature, pH, fluid levels, and energy metabolism.

The mechanisms of homeostasis involve feedback loops that continuously monitor and adjust internal conditions to maintain stable levels. Negative feedback loops, for example, are used to detect and correct deviations from normal conditions, such as fluctuations in body temperature or blood glucose levels. Positive feedback loops, on the other hand, amplify changes in the internal environment and are involved in processes such as childbirth and blood clotting.

The body's major organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis. The nervous system, for example, uses sensors in the body to detect deviations from normal conditions and sends signals to coordinate responses. The endocrine system uses hormones to regulate various physiological processes, including metabolism, growth and development, and fluid and ion balance. The immune system also plays a role in maintaining homeostasis by fighting off infections and other threats to the internal environment.

Dysfunction in homeostasis can lead to diseases and health problems. For example, diabetes results from a failure in the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels, while dehydration occurs when there is an imbalance in fluid and electrolyte levels. Understanding homeostasis and its mechanisms is thus crucial in preventing and treating various health conditions.

Francis Mpatswe
7 Views · 20 days ago

A US military helicopter that vanished has been found in a mountainous area – but without the five Marines it was carrying.

#us #militarychopper #latestnews


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Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 20 days ago

atomic masses, relative atomic masses, and relative molecular masses

Landus Mumbere Expedito
8 Views · 20 days ago

Do you know the 12 rules for life that Jordan Peterson lives by ? Here’s a FREE PDF of the 12 RULES FOR LIFE if you don’t know them: https://bit.ly/12-RULES-FREE-PDF

One reason that many people don’t read much is that they don’t read well. For them, it is slow, hard work and they don’t remember as much as they should. Students, for example,may have to read something several times before they understand and remember what they read.

Why?....Jordan Peterson - How to Remember Everything You Read

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🎓 ABOUT JORDAN PETERSON :

This audio clip was taken and edited from Jordan B. Peterson. Jordan Peterson is a Canadian clinical psychologist and a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto.

****logy professor Jordan Peterson has become a controversial figure ever since speaking out against Bill C-16 (2016), a law that adds gender expression and gender identity to the Canadian Human Rights Act.

He has received both praise and criticism after the publication of his self-help book 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos (2018). His fans are thankful for the advice he’s given them to take responsibility for their lives. Peterson has become an important inspiration for various men’s groups, an influential voice.

Jordan Peterson gives an EXTREMELY POWERFUL motivational speech on becoming unstoppable in life, showing you the steps we need to take in order to achieve your true potential. If you enjoyed the wonderful life advice, be sure to support Jordan Peterson himself and purchase his latest book, it's a great read!

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 20 days ago

Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with relationships between the angles and sides of triangles. It is commonly used in geometry, physics, and engineering to solve problems involving right triangles.

The three basic trigonometric functions are sine, cosine, and tangent. The sine of an angle is defined as the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse. The cosine of an angle is defined as the ratio of the length of the side adjacent to the angle to the length of the hypotenuse. The tangent of an angle is defined as the ratio of the sine of the angle to the cosine of the angle.

In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is the side opposite the right angle, the base is the side adjacent to the angle, and the height is the side opposite to the angle. The Pythagorean theorem states that in a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.

Trigonometric functions can be used to solve various problems involving angles and sides of triangles. For example, if you know one side and one angle of a right triangle, you can use trigonometric functions to find the lengths of the other sides. Similarly, if you know the lengths of two sides, you can use trigonometric functions to find the angles of the triangle.

Trigonometry also involves concepts such as radian measure, which is an alternative way of measuring angles, and the unit circle, which is a circle with a radius of one unit used to define the values of trigonometric functions for all angles.

Overall, basic trigonometry provides tools to analyze and solve problems involving triangles, angles, and sides. It is an important branch of mathematics that has applications in various fields.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 20 days ago

central nervous system, reflex arc, conditioned reflex, part and functions of parts of the brain, sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, position of endocrine glands in the body, hormone and their function, mechanism of hormone action



⁣Differences between Nervous and Endocrine Systems:

1. Communication:
- Nervous System: Uses electrical impulses (action potentials) for rapid communication.
- Endocrine System: Uses chemical messengers called hormones for slower, long-distance communication.

2. Mode of Transmission:
- Nervous System: Transmits information through neurons via synapses.
- Endocrine System: Releases hormones into the bloodstream to target specific tissues or organs.

3. Speed of Response:
- Nervous System: Responds rapidly, enabling quick reflexes and immediate reactions.
- Endocrine System: Responds more slowly, with effects taking minutes to hours, but lasts longer.

4. Duration of Effect:
- Nervous System: Effects are short-lived.
- Endocrine System: Effects are long-lasting.

Action Potential:
- An action potential is a rapid electrical impulse that allows neurons to transmit signals throughout the nervous system.
- It is generated when the membrane potential of a neuron depolarizes, reaching a threshold level, causing a cascade of voltage-gated ion channels to open and initiate the action potential.
- The action potential propagates down the axon of a neuron, allowing for long-distance transmission of signals.

Impulse:
- An impulse refers to the rapid transmission of an action potential along the length of a neuron.
- It involves the depolarization and repolarization of the neuron's membrane.
- The impulse allows for the efficient and coordinated communication of signals in the nervous system.

All-or-None Law:
- The all-or-none law states that once a neuron's membrane potential reaches the threshold level, an action potential is generated and transmitted along the neuron.
- The size or intensity of the stimulus does not affect the amplitude or speed of the action potential; it either fires completely or does not fire at all.

Refractory Period:
- The refractory period is a brief period of time following an action potential when the neuron cannot generate another action potential.
- It allows the neuron to recover and reset its ion channels before firing again, ensuring proper signal transmission and preventing continuous firing.

Synapse:
- A synapse is a junction between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell (such as a muscle or gland).
- It is the site where communication occurs between these cells.
- At the synapse, the electrical signal of the presynaptic neuron is converted into a chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitters.

Transmission at the Synapse:
- Transmission at the synapse involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron, which diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or effector cell.
- This binding triggers a response in the postsynaptic neuron or effector cell, propagating the signal across the synapse.

Neuromuscular Junction:
- The neuromuscular junction is a specialized synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
- It is responsible for transmitting signals from the motor neuron to the muscle, leading to muscle contraction.

Functions of Synapses:
- Mediating the transmission of signals between neurons, allowing for communication within the nervous system.
- Integrating and processing incoming signals, allowing for complex and coordinated responses.
- Modulating and amplifying signals, enabling effective communication and control of bodily functions.
- Allowing for synaptic plasticity, which is crucial for learning, memory formation, and neural adaptability.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 20 days ago

Differences between nervous and endocrine system, action potential, impulse, none or nothing law, refractory period, synapse, transmission at the synapse, neuromuscular junction, functions of the synapses.




Differences between Nervous and Endocrine Systems:

1. Communication:
- Nervous System: Uses electrical impulses (action potentials) for rapid communication.
- Endocrine System: Uses chemical messengers called hormones for slower, long-distance communication.

2. Mode of Transmission:
- Nervous System: Transmits information through neurons via synapses.
- Endocrine System: Releases hormones into the bloodstream to target specific tissues or organs.

3. Speed of Response:
- Nervous System: Responds rapidly, enabling quick reflexes and immediate reactions.
- Endocrine System: Responds more slowly, with effects taking minutes to hours, but lasts longer.

4. Duration of Effect:
- Nervous System: Effects are short-lived.
- Endocrine System: Effects are long-lasting.

Action Potential:
- An action potential is a rapid electrical impulse that allows neurons to transmit signals throughout the nervous system.
- It is generated when the membrane potential of a neuron depolarizes, reaching a threshold level, causing a cascade of voltage-gated ion channels to open and initiate the action potential.
- The action potential propagates down the axon of a neuron, allowing for long-distance transmission of signals.

Impulse:
- An impulse refers to the rapid transmission of an action potential along the length of a neuron.
- It involves the depolarization and repolarization of the neuron's membrane.
- The impulse allows for the efficient and coordinated communication of signals in the nervous system.

All-or-None Law:
- The all-or-none law states that once a neuron's membrane potential reaches the threshold level, an action potential is generated and transmitted along the neuron.
- The size or intensity of the stimulus does not affect the amplitude or speed of the action potential; it either fires completely or does not fire at all.

Refractory Period:
- The refractory period is a brief period of time following an action potential when the neuron cannot generate another action potential.
- It allows the neuron to recover and reset its ion channels before firing again, ensuring proper signal transmission and preventing continuous firing.

Synapse:
- A synapse is a junction between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell (such as a muscle or gland).
- It is the site where communication occurs between these cells.
- At the synapse, the electrical signal of the presynaptic neuron is converted into a chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitters.

Transmission at the Synapse:
- Transmission at the synapse involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron, which diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or effector cell.
- This binding triggers a response in the postsynaptic neuron or effector cell, propagating the signal across the synapse.

Neuromuscular Junction:
- The neuromuscular junction is a specialized synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
- It is responsible for transmitting signals from the motor neuron to the muscle, leading to muscle contraction.

Functions of Synapses:
- Mediating the transmission of signals between neurons, allowing for communication within the nervous system.
- Integrating and processing incoming signals, allowing for complex and coordinated responses.
- Modulating and amplifying signals, enabling effective communication and control of bodily functions.
- Allowing for synaptic plasticity, which is crucial for learning, memory formation, and neural adaptability.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 20 days ago

structure, adaptations and functions of photosynthesis, chemistry of photosynthesis(light harvesting, electron transport and Calvin cycle), C3 and C4 plants, advantages of C4 plants over C3 plant, differences between respiration and photosynthesis.



Structure and Adaptations of Photosynthesis:
- Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells.
- Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll, which captures sunlight.
- The chloroplasts have an inner membrane, outer membrane, and thylakoid membranes, where the various stages of photosynthesis take place.
- The thylakoid membranes are arranged in stacks called grana, and the fluid-filled space surrounding the grana is called the stroma.
- Adaptations of photosynthesis include the presence of large surface areas with abundant chloroplasts in leaves, and the arrangement of chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid membranes to maximize light absorption.

Functions of Photosynthesis:
- Conversion of sunlight energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose.
- Production of oxygen as a byproduct, which is released into the atmosphere.
- Biosynthesis of carbohydrates and other organic compounds necessary for the plant's growth and maintenance.

Chemistry of Photosynthesis:
1. Light Harvesting: Chlorophyll absorbs photons of light energy, exciting electrons and initiating the process.
2. Electron Transport: Excited electrons are passed through a series of electron carriers within the thylakoid membranes, generating ATP and reducing NADP+ to NADPH.
3. Calvin Cycle: This occurs in the stroma and involves a series of enzyme-mediated reactions that use ATP and NADPH to convert carbon dioxide into glucose.

C3 and C4 Plants:
- C3 plants: Common plants like wheat, rice, and oats that directly use the C3 pathway in photosynthesis. In this pathway, carbon dioxide is initially fixed into a three-carbon compound.
- C4 plants: Plants like corn, sugarcane, and sorghum that have an additional step before entering the C3 pathway. They first fix carbon dioxide into a four-carbon compound, helping them adapt to hotter and drier environments.

Advantages of C4 Plants over C3 Plants:
- C4 plants have a higher rate of photosynthesis and can better withstand high temperatures and low carbon dioxide conditions.
- Their unique carbon fixation process allows them to efficiently use water and nutrients, promoting their growth in arid conditions.
- C4 plants often exhibit better water use efficiency compared to C3 plants.

Differences between Respiration and Photosynthesis:
1. Respiration occurs in all living cells, while photosynthesis occurs only in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
2. Respiration involves the breakdown of glucose to produce ATP, releasing carbon dioxide as a byproduct, while photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide to produce glucose, releasing oxygen as a byproduct.
3. Respiration occurs continuously, while photosynthesis typically occurs during daylight hours.
4. Respiration releases energy, while photosynthesis stores energy.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 20 days ago

types of autotrophic nutrition, conditions necessary for photosynthesis, limiting factors of photosynthesis

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 20 days ago

Purpose, types and adaptations to different types of heterotrophic nutrition
digestion and adaptation of digestive canal
control of digestions

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 20 days ago

Properties, and uses of acids, bases, water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 20 days ago

Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, basal metabolic rate, fermentation

⁣Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert nutrients into energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). It is a series of metabolic reactions that occur in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration) or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic respiration).

In aerobic respiration, the process takes place in the mitochondria and consists of three main stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle or TCA cycle), and the electron transport chain.

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. This process yields a small amount of ATP and NADH.

Next, pyruvate enters the mitochondria where it undergoes the Krebs cycle. During this cycle, pyruvate is further broken down, releasing carbon dioxide and producing NADH, FADH2, and ATP.

The final stage is the electron transport chain, which occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. NADH and FADH2 produced in previous stages donate electrons to the chain, creating a flow of electrons that generates a proton gradient. This gradient drives ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation.

Anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen and includes processes such as alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. These processes allow cells to continue generating small amounts of ATP without oxygen but are less efficient than aerobic respiration.

Overall, cellular respiration is a crucial process for organisms to obtain energy from nutrients and sustain various cellular activities.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 20 days ago

properties of enzymes, factors affecting enzymes, lock and key hypothesis, enzyme inhibitors, anabolic reactions, catabolic reactions

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 20 days ago

Diffusion, osmosis, active transport, phagocytosis and pinocytosis for A-level students

Francis Mpatswe
32 Views · 20 days ago

Concern is growing in Democratic Republic of Congo after M23 rebels encircled the strategic town of Sake in the east of the country. The Congolese army and UN peacekeepers have been struggling to contain the armed group’s advance on Goma North Kivu’s provincial capital.

Al Jazeera's Michael Appel reports.

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#DRC #M23Rebels #Sake #Goma #NorthKivu #UNPeacekeepers #ConflictInAfrica #CongoCrisis

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 21 days ago

describes physical and chemical properties of cobalt and nickel


Chemistry of Cobalt:
1. Atomic and physical properties: Cobalt has an atomic number of 27 and an atomic weight of 58.933 g/mol. It is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal with a high melting point of 1495°C and a boiling point of 2870°C.

2. Oxidation states: Cobalt can exhibit various oxidation states, including +2, +3, and +4. The +2 state is the most common and stable, while the +3 and +4 states are less common.

3. Chemical reactivity: Cobalt is a moderately reactive metal, similar to iron. It reacts slowly with oxygen in the air to form cobalt(II) oxide (CoO). It also reacts with a variety of acids and non-metals, such as sulfur and halogens.

4. Cobalt compounds: Cobalt forms a multitude of compounds, such as cobalt chloride (CoCl2), cobalt nitrate (Co(NO3)2), and cobalt sulfate (CoSO4). These compounds find applications in various fields, including catalysts, pigments, and batteries.

5. Biological importance: Cobalt is an essential element for some living organisms. It is a critical component of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which is necessary for proper functioning of the nervous system, DNA synthesis, and red blood cell production.

6. Magnetic properties: Cobalt is known for its magnetic properties. It is one of the few naturally occurring magnetic elements and can be magnetized to produce permanent magnets.

7. Alloys: Cobalt forms alloys with other metals, such as cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) and cobalt-nickel (Co-Ni) alloys. These alloys have excellent strength, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance, making them useful in applications like aerospace, orthopedic implants, and turbine blades.

Chemistry of Nickel:
1. Atomic and physical properties: Nickel has an atomic number of 28 and an atomic weight of 58.693 g/mol. It is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel has a melting point of 1455°C and a boiling point of 2730°C.

2. Oxidation states: Nickel commonly exhibits two oxidation states, +2 and +3. The +2 state is the more stable and prevalent form.

3. Chemical reactivity: Nickel undergoes slow oxidation in air, forming a thin oxide layer. It is resistant to corrosion and is utilized in various applications where corrosion resistance is crucial, such as stainless steel.

4. Nickel compounds: Nickel forms a range of compounds, including nickel chloride (NiCl2), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and nickel oxide (NiO). These compounds have applications in electroplating, catalysts, and ceramics.

5. Biological importance: Nickel is not considered an essential nutrient for most organisms but has some biological activity. It is a cofactor for certain enzymes and plays a role in enzymatic processes.

6. Alloy formation: Nickel is widely used in alloy formation. It forms alloys with metals like iron, chromium, and copper, leading to the production of stainless steel, superalloys, and various other alloys with improved mechanical and thermal properties.

7. Industrial applications: Nickel and its alloys find extensive use in various industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, and construction, due to their excellent corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, and heat resistance.

Understanding the chemistry of cobalt and nickel is crucial in fields such as materials science, metallurgy, catalysis, and biochemistry. It enables the development of new materials and compounds, enhances industrial processes, and contributes to advancements in various technological applications.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 21 days ago

properties of iron such reaction with air, water, chlorine acid, qualitative analysis,stability of oxidation states 2 and 3


Iron is a transition element that belongs to the d-block in the periodic table. Here are some key aspects of the chemistry of iron:

1. Atomic and physical properties: Iron has an atomic number of 26 and an atomic weight of 55.845 g/mol. It is a silvery-gray metal with a high melting point of 1538°C and a boiling point of 2862°C. Iron is a paramagnetic material, meaning it is weakly attracted to magnetic fields.

2. Oxidation states: Iron can exhibit various oxidation states, but the most common are +2 (ferrous) and +3 (ferric). The +2 state is more stable in aqueous solutions, while the +3 state is more prevalent in solid compounds.

3. Chemical reactivity: Iron is a moderately reactive metal. It readily reacts with oxygen in the presence of moisture to form iron oxides. This reaction is known as rusting. Iron also reacts with acids, halogens, and sulfur, among other elements.

4. Iron compounds: Iron forms various compounds, including iron oxide (Fe2O3), iron sulfide (FeS), iron chloride (FeCl2 and FeCl3), and iron carbonate (FeCO3). These compounds find applications in industries like construction, manufacturing, and medicine.

5. Biological importance: Iron is an essential nutrient for most living organisms. It plays a critical role in oxygen transport (through hemoglobin and myoglobin), energy metabolism, DNA synthesis, and enzyme activity.

6. Alloy formation: Iron forms alloys with other elements, such as carbon (to produce steel), nickel (to produce stainless steel), and cobalt (to produce magnets). These alloys have enhanced properties, including improved strength, corrosion resistance, and magnetic properties.

7. Redox reactions: Iron can readily undergo redox reactions, switching between the +2 and +3 oxidation states. This property is crucial in many biological processes and industrial applications.

8. Geological occurrence: Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust. It is commonly found in the form of hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), and siderite (FeCO3).

Studying the chemistry of iron is crucial in various disciplines, including materials science, environmental science, biology, medicine, and geology. It helps us understand the behavior of iron and its compounds, develop new materials, improve industrial processes, and maintain human health.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

physical and chemical properties of manganese, reaction with water, air, oxidation properties of manganese VII, confirmatory tests of manganese II ions



The chemistry of manganese involves the study of the properties, reactions, and compounds of the element manganese (Mn), which belongs to the transition metal group in the periodic table. Here are some key aspects of the chemistry of manganese:

1. Oxidation states: Manganese exhibits various oxidation states ranging from -3 to +7. The most common oxidation states are +2, +4, and +7.

2. Chemical reactivity: Manganese is a moderately reactive metal. It readily reacts with halogens, sulfur, and many other non-metallic elements. It also reacts with acids to produce salts and hydrogen gas.

3. Manganese compounds: Manganese forms various compounds such as oxides (e.g., manganese dioxide), sulfides (e.g., manganese sulfide), halides (e.g., manganese chloride), and complex ions (e.g., permanganate ion).

4. Catalytic properties: Manganese, particularly in its higher oxidation states (e.g., MnO2), exhibits excellent catalytic activity. It is used as a catalyst in many chemical reactions, such as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

5. Biological importance: Manganese is an essential trace element for many organisms, including plants, animals, and humans. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including enzyme activation, energy metabolism, and antioxidant defense.

6. Oxidation-reduction reactions: Manganese can undergo oxidation-reduction reactions by switching between different oxidation states. This ability is utilized in redox reactions and electron transfer processes.

7. Coordination chemistry: Manganese forms complex compounds with ligands in coordination chemistry. These compounds have applications in various fields, including medicine, industry, and environmental science.

8. Geological occurrence: Manganese is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. It is commonly found in ores, such as pyrolusite (MnO2) and rhodochrosite (MnCO3).

Studying the chemistry of manganese is important for understanding its properties, applications, and environmental impact. It has wide-ranging implications in fields such as materials science, environmental science, medicine, and industrial processes.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 21 days ago

Describes variation of electronegativity, electropositivity, atomic radii, ionization energies, electron affinities and melting points in the periodic table

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

Properties of the earth.structure of the earthSpinning and Rotation of the earthTheories of continental driftF.B Tailor’s theory of continental driftCriticism of F.B Tailor’s theory of continental driftTheory of sea flow spreadingThe Evidence in support of seafloor spreading Alfred Wegner’s theory of continental driftRelevancy/Evidences to support Wegner’s theory




The Earth, Continental Drift, and Earthquakes are interconnected processes and phenomena that occur on our planet. Let's take a closer look at each of them individually.

1. The Earth: The Earth is the third planet from the Sun and is composed of several layers, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The Earth's surface is primarily covered by oceans and continents. It has a diverse range of landscapes, climates, and ecosystems, making it a unique and dynamic planet.

2. Continental Drift: Continental drift refers to the movement of Earth's continents over time. The theory of continental drift was first proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century. It suggests that the continents were once part of a supercontinent called Pangaea, which slowly broke apart and moved to their current positions. The process of continental drift is driven by the movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth's surface, which leads us to the next point.

3. Tectonic Plates: The Earth's outer layer, known as the lithosphere, is divided into several large and small tectonic plates. These plates float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere beneath them and are constantly moving. The movement of tectonic plates is responsible for various geologic phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the creation of mountain ranges.

4. Earthquakes: Earthquakes occur when there is a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust, causing the ground to shake. Most earthquakes are a result of the movement of tectonic plates. When the tectonic plates collide, slide past each other, or separate, they generate stress, which accumulates over time. Once the stress exceeds the strength of the rocks, it is released in the form of seismic waves, causing an earthquake. Earthquakes can range from minor tremors to major, destructive events that can result in loss of life and damage to infrastructure.

Understanding the Earth, continental drift, and earthquakes is crucial for studying the dynamic nature of our planet. It helps us understand the distribution of landmasses, the formation of mountain ranges, the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic activity, and the overall behavior of the Earth's crust.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 21 days ago

Major industrial Centres in selected countries in the world, Britan, USA, China, Germany, Republic of South AfricaFactors that favor development of industriesContributions of industrialization in a countryContribution of industries to environmental pollution Factors responsible for changes in patterns of industrial development in a given industrial areaObstacles to industrial development in AfricaSteps being taken to promote industrialization in Africa


⁣Manufacturing industry is a key aspect of economic development in many countries around the world. It encompasses all production activities that involve converting raw materials into finished products, which can be sold in markets for profit. Several factors - including access to natural resources, labor, technology, capital, and markets - influence the growth of the manufacturing industry in various regions of the world.

Some of the top countries that have established a strong manufacturing industry include China, the United States, Japan, Germany, and South Korea. China, for instance, has been a leading manufacturer for several years, primarily due to its vast labor force, which provides a cheap source of production. It has also invested heavily in technology and infrastructure to support the manufacturing industry.

The United States is another significant player in the manufacturing industry, producing a wide variety of goods ranging from automobiles to airplanes, consumer electronics, and pharmaceuticals. The United States' manufacturing industry's success is attributed to its sophisticated technology, a highly skilled labor force, and a supportive institutional framework.

Japan, on the other hand, has established a reputation for producing high-quality products on a large scale. It mainly focuses on manufacturing automobiles, electronics, and raw materials for other manufacturing industries globally. Germany, meanwhile, has specialized in producing engineering and high-end consumer products, including automobiles, machinery, and health equipment.

In conclusion, the manufacturing industry is a crucial aspect of economic development globally, and several countries have invested in this industry to boost their economies. Strategies that have contributed to the growth of manufacturing include investment in technology, access to labor, natural resources, creation of infrastructure, and supportive institutional frameworks.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 21 days ago

Theories explaining formation of block mountain or horst
Formation of a block mountain by compression forces
Formation of a block mountain by tension forces
Formation by relative sinking
Fault scarps/ fault escarpments.
Grabens
Fault guided valleys
Tilt block land scape
Crustal warping

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

Faulting
The Rift Valley
• The Tension force theory by Gregory
• The compression force by Wayland
• Vertical displacement theory by Dixey
Importance of rift valley

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 21 days ago

Volcanism, volcanism or Vulcanicity
Extrusive volcanic features; Ash and cinder cones. Composite cones/strato volcanoes, Shield volcanoes, Lava plateaus, Volcanic plug, Volcanic neck, Cumulo dome, Caldera. Hot springs, Geysers and Fumaroles.
Intrusive volcanic features; Batholiths, Inselbergs, ****s, Ridges, Sills, Laccoliths, Uplands.
The importance of vulcanicity to economic development of East Africa

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 21 days ago

Mineral
Rocks
The process responsible for the formation of igneous rocks in East Africa
Plutonic rocks/ Abyssal rocks:
Hypabyssal/intermediate rocks:
Volcanic rocks/extrusive rocks:
Characteristics of Igneous rocks
Importance/uses of igneous rocks
Characteristics of sedimentary rocks
Importance of sedimentary rocks
Characteristics of metamorphic rocks
Importance of metamorphic rocks
Influence of igneous rocks on landform development in East Africa
Influence of Rock structure on the development of drainage patterns in East Africa.
1. Rectilinear or Trellis drainage pattern
2. Parallel drainage pattern
3. Dendritic and radial drainage patterns.
4. Radial drainage pattern
The relationship between rock hardness and types of slope formation in East Africa

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

Agricultural production in Monsoon Asia
Favorable Factors intensive agricultural production in Monsoon Asia
Problems faced by agricultural production in Monsoon Asia
Steps being taken to solve the problems of agricultural production in Monsoon Asia
Factors responsible for low level of agricultural productivity in tropical Africa

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

Agricultural communes in china
Characteristics of communes
Factors that lead to development of agricultural communes in China
Contributions of commune farming in China
Collective farming
Main characteristics of collective farming
Positive contributions/Advantages of collective farming
Ujamaa system in Tanzania
Benefits of the Ujamaa system
Shortcomings of Ujamaa system

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 21 days ago

Small holding farming
Characteristics of small holding farms
Advantages of small scale farming
Disadvantages of small scale farming
Growing of palm oil trees in Nigeria
Benefits of growing palm oil trees in Nigeria
Factors favoring growing of Palm oil trees in Nigeria
Challenges facing palm oil farmers
Measures being taken to increase palm oil production in Nigeria
Cocoa farming in Ghana
Benefits of growing cocoa to Ghana
Factors favoring growing of cocoa in Ghana
Measures being taken to increase cocoa production in Ghana

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

Characteristic of plantation farming
Plantation farming in Kwazulu-Natal
Plantation farming in Liberia
Extensive wheat farming in Canada and North America
Factors that favors plantation/extensive farming
Challenges of plantation/extensive farming
Positive contributions/Merits of Plantation/extensive farming
Demerits/Negative contributions of Plantation/extensive farming

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 21 days ago

The reasons for rapid forest destruction tropical rain forests.
Effects of deforestation on the environment.
Measure being taken to combat deforestation
Temperate coniferous forests
Characteristics of Temperate coniferous forests
Factors that have favored development of the temperate coniferous forests
Differences between boreal forests and tropical rain forests.
Contributions of forestry to the economy of a country

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 21 days ago

Characteristics of tropical rainforest
Factors that favor the growth of tropical rainforest
Factors favoring exploitation of tropical rain forests
Factors that limit exploitation of tropical forests

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 21 days ago

Tourism definition
Tourism in California, South Africa, Kenya, and Tanzania
Positive and negative contributions of tourism industry
Problems facing tourist industry in developing countries
Problems facing the tourism industry in developed countries

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 21 days ago

Factors that influence population distribution
Effects/contrbutions of high population
Population problems in developing countries (Uganda)
Possible solutions to the population problems in developing countries

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 21 days ago

Definitions of population, population census. The importance of population census in the economy. Factors which influence migration of people, Determinants of population growth rate, Population distribution in the world, The population distribution in Africa: nigeria, Egypt, Kenya, China, Canada, India,

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 21 days ago

UACE 250/2 geography paper 2 topic:advantages of road and railways transport, ,contributions of road and railway transport, problems facing road and railtransport in Africa

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

Mr .Nyonjo Khalid said the new curriculum is much better because a child leaves school when she/he has learnt something to do with hands.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 21 days ago

This episode breaks down skeletal tissue starting with cartilage. Please learn, and ensure that you note down.

Francis Mpatswe
20 Views · 22 days ago

At least three people have been confirmed dead as dangerous storms have swept through the state.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 22 days ago

osmotic pressure and calculation

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 22 days ago

Defines colligative properties giving example. discusses freezing point depression with worked examples, limitations of colligative properties

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 22 days ago

Describes boiling point elevation and calculations

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 22 days ago

Describes the lowering of osmotic pressure with calculations

tebtalks
6 Views · 22 days ago

😍

tebtalks
5 Views · 23 days ago

😍😍😍

tebtalks
2 Views · 23 days ago

😍😘😗

Francis Mpatswe
5 Views · 23 days ago

Visit our website i.e standardhighschoolzana.com for detailed notes
You can send our feed backs to stahiza2020@gmail.com.
Stay Live and Safe.

Francis Mpatswe
6 Views · 24 days ago

😍

Francis Mpatswe
6 Views · 24 days ago

How to create a basic IF statement in Excel.

Francis Mpatswe
5 Views · 24 days ago

In this video, you'll see how to find the highest and lowest values for specific products, in a long sales list, with multiple products.


With a simple MIN formula you can find the lowest value in a range of cells. With MAX, you can find the highest value.

If you want to add criteria to the MIN or MAX, you can combine those function with IF, to get the correct results.


Download the sample file from my Contextures, and see written steps:
http://www.contextures.com/exc....elminmaxfunction.htm

tebtalks
4 Views · 24 days ago

🤑🤑🤑🤑

tebtalks
7 Views · 24 days ago

🤑🤑🤑

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 24 days ago

Calculating solubility product, common ion effect


Solubility product constant (Ksp) is a thermodynamic equilibrium constant that describes the degree to which a sparingly soluble compound dissolves in water. It is equal to the product of the concentrations of the ions raised to the powers of their stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced chemical equation representing the dissolution of the compound. For example, consider the dissolution of a sparingly soluble salt MX at equilibrium:

MX (s) ⇌ M^+ (aq) + X^- (aq)

The solubility product expression for this reaction is:

Ksp = [M^+][X^-]

where [M^+] and [X^-] are the concentrations of the dissolved ions in the equilibrium mixture. The value of Ksp depends only on temperature and is a measure of the maximum amount of dissolved ions that can exist in a saturated solution of the salt.

If the ion concentrations in a particular solution are greater than Ksp, the salt will precipitate out of the solution until it reaches equilibrium again. On the other hand, if the ion concentrations are less than Ksp, the solution is unsaturated and additional salt can dissolve until saturation is reached. The Ksp value allows us to predict the solubility behavior of a salt and also to determine its molar solubility (the concentration of the dissolved ions) at equilibrium.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 24 days ago

terminologies in in thermodynamic

⁣Certainly! Here are some additional terminologies used in advanced level thermochemistry:

1. #Enthalpy: The total heat energy content of a system at constant pressure.
2. #InternalEnergy: The sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles within a system.
3. #StandardState: The defined set of conditions under which thermodynamic properties are measured and compared.
4. #EnthalpyofFormation: The change in enthalpy that occurs when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states.
5. #EnthalpyofCombustion: The change in enthalpy that occurs when one mole of a substance is completely burned in excess oxygen.
6. #EnthalpyofReaction: The change in enthalpy that occurs during a chemical reaction, typically expressed in kJ/mol.
7. #HeatofSolution: The enthalpy change that occurs when a solute dissolves in a solvent to form a solution.
8. #StandardEnthalpyofReaction: The enthalpy change that occurs during a reaction when all reactants and products are in their standard states.
9. #StandardEnthalpyofFormation: The enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard states, with all substances in their standard states as reactants and products.
10. #BondDissociationEnergy: The energy required to break a specific bond in a gaseous molecule.
11. #EnthalpyDiagram: A graphical representation of the energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction, showing the potential energy of the reactants and products.
12. #EntropyChange: The change in entropy that occurs during a chemical reaction, usually expressed in J/mol·K.
13. #GibbsFreeEnergyChange: The change in Gibbs free energy that occurs during a chemical reaction, indicating the spontaneity and direction of the reaction.
14. #EquilibriumConstant: The ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium for a chemical reaction, indicating the extent of the reaction.
15. #ThermodynamicCycle: A series of thermodynamic processes that returns a system to its initial state, often used to determine specific energy changes.

These terminologies are commonly used in advanced level thermochemistry to analyze and quantify the energy changes and thermodynamic properties associated with chemical reactions and systems.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 24 days ago

Terminologies;- concave mirror, convex mirrors, center of curvature, radius of curvature, principal focus, focal length, pole of the mirror, principal axis, paraxial rays; parabolic mirrors, real and virtual images, properties of images formed by concave and convex mirrors; uses of concave and convex mirrors.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 24 days ago

Incident rays, reflected ray, normal, laws of reflection, types of reflection, Image formation in plane mirror, properties of image formed by plane mirror, location of an image formed by plane mirror by no parallax, formation of multiple images by thick plane mirror.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 24 days ago

Sources of light, transparent medium, translucent medium, opaque medium, rays, types of beams, Rectilinear propagation of light, experiments to show that light travels in straight line, shadows from point source and extended source of light, eclipses of the sun and moon, image formation in pinhole camera, properties of images formed by pinhole camera, factors affecting images formed by pinhole camera, lens camera, differences between pinhole and lens camera, differences between lens camera and the eye.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 24 days ago

Production and transmission of sound waves, experiment to show that transmission of sound waves requires material medium, factors affecting speed of sound waves, Quality of sound i.e. pitch, loudness and timbre



Sound waves are mechanical waves that propagate through a medium by compressing and rarefying the particles of the medium. They are created by the vibration of an object or source, which causes particles in the medium to vibrate and transfer energy.

Key characteristics of sound waves include:

1. Frequency: The frequency of a sound wave refers to the number of cycles or vibrations it completes in one second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz). Higher frequencies result in higher-pitched sounds, while lower frequencies produce lower-pitched sounds.

2. Amplitude: The amplitude of a sound wave represents the maximum displacement of the particles in the medium from their resting position. It determines the loudness or intensity of a sound. Greater amplitude results in a louder sound, while smaller amplitude produces a softer sound.

3. Wavelength: The wavelength of a sound wave is the distance between two consecutive compressions or rarefactions of the wave. It is inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave. Longer wavelengths correspond to lower frequencies, while shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies.

4. Speed: The speed of sound refers to the rate at which sound waves travel through a medium. It depends on the properties of the medium, such as temperature, density, and elasticity. In dry air at room temperature, sound travels at approximately 343 meters per second.

Sound waves can be transmitted through different mediums, including air, water, and solids. They propagate in all directions and can be reflected, refracted, diffracted, and absorbed by various objects and surfaces they encounter.

Sound waves are responsible for our perception of sound and have numerous applications, including:

1. Communication: Sound waves enable us to communicate through speech, music, and other forms of audio transmission.

2. Music: Sound waves are the basis of music, allowing us to enjoy melodies, harmonies, and rhythms.

3. Sonar: Sound waves are used in sonar systems for navigation and underwater detection by emitting sound and analyzing its reflection.

4. Medical Imaging: Techniques like ultrasound employ sound waves to create images of internal organs and tissues in medical diagnosis and monitoring.

5. Noise cancellation: Sound waves can be manipulated to cancel or reduce unwanted sounds in noise cancellation technology.

By understanding the properties, behaviors, and applications of sound waves, we gain insights into the phenomena and principles underlying our auditory experiences and the practical use of sound in various domains.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 24 days ago

Definition of a wave, differences between mechanical and electromagnetic waves, differences between longitudinal and transverse waves, terminologies of a wave i.e., crest, trough, cycle, wavelength, period, frequency, and wave velocity, worked examples.

⁣At the Ordinary level, waves are a fundamental topic in physics. Here are some key areas covered when studying waves at this level:

#Waves #PropertiesOfWaves #WaveTypes #WavePropagation #WaveBehavior #WaveInterference #WaveReflection #WaveRefraction #WaveDiffraction #SoundWaves #LightWaves

1. #Waves:
Waves are disturbances that transfer energy through a medium or empty space. They can be classified as mechanical waves, such as sound waves that require a medium for propagation, or electromagnetic waves, like light waves that can travel through a vacuum.

2. #PropertiesOfWaves:
Waves have several characteristics, including amplitude (the maximum displacement from equilibrium), wavelength (the distance between two successive points in a wave), and frequency (the number of complete waves passing a given point per second).

3. #WaveTypes:
Different types of waves include transverse waves and longitudinal waves. Transverse waves oscillate perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, while longitudinal waves oscillate parallel to the wave's direction.

4. #WavePropagation:
Wave propagation refers to how waves spread or travel through a medium or empty space. Mechanical waves, like water waves or sound waves, require a medium, while electromagnetic waves, including light waves and radio waves, can propagate through a vacuum.

5. #WaveBehavior:
Waves can undergo behaviors such as reflection (bouncing off a surface), refraction (bending when passing from one medium to another), diffraction (bending around obstacles or through gaps), and interference (interaction between two or more waves).

6. #WaveInterference:
Wave interference occurs when two or more waves meet at the same point in space. Constructive interference happens when their amplitudes add up, resulting in a larger wave. Destructive interference occurs when their amplitudes cancel each other out, leading to a smaller or zero wave.

7. #WaveReflection:
Wave reflection happens when waves encounter a boundary or barrier and bounce back. The angle of incidence (the angle at which the wave strikes the boundary) is equal to the angle of reflection (the angle at which the wave bounces off the boundary).

8. #WaveRefraction:
Wave refraction occurs when waves pass from one medium to another and change speed, causing their direction to bend. This bending is determined by the change in the wave's speed and the angle at which it approaches the boundary between the two media.

9. #WaveDiffraction:
Wave diffraction refers to the bending or spreading of waves as they encounter obstacles or pass through narrow openings. Diffraction allows waves to spread out and bend around corners, enabling phenomena like sound reaching around objects or light passing through a small gap.

10. #SoundWaves:
Sound waves are mechanical waves that result from the vibration of particles in a medium, typically air. They can travel through gases, liquids, and solids, and are responsible for our perception of sound.

11. #LightWaves:
Light waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum and can travel through a vacuum or a transparent medium. They exhibit properties of both waves and particles (photons) and are responsible for our perception of sight.

These #tags cover the key topics and concepts taught at the Ordinary level when studying waves. Understanding these areas will provide a foundation for further exploration of waves and their various applications in science and technology.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 24 days ago

Definition of electromagnetic induction, demonstration of electromagnetic induction using a straight wire and a solenoid, predicting the direction of current using Fleming's right rule, Applications of electromagnetic induction in d.c. motor, d.c. generator and a.c generator. Transformers and power transmission

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 24 days ago

effect of magnetic field on current carrying conductor, Fleming's left hand rule, Magnetic field of current carrying conductor in magnetic field of a permanent magnet

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 24 days ago

Definition of electromagnet;
Uses of electromagnets in electric bell, telephone receiver, moving coil loud speaker, and relay switch

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 24 days ago

definition of magnetism, uses of magnets, properties of magnets, magnetic domain theory, methods of magnetization( i.e. single stroke, double stroke, electrical and induction methods), method of demagnetization (i.e. heating, hitting, electrical methods,), storing a magnet , soft and hard magnetic substances

Mpatswe Francis
3 Views · 25 days ago

A decision by Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger to quit West Africa's economic and political bloc, ECOWAS, has come as a shock to many in the region, but not a surprise. This move could reverse decades of regional integration, leaving millions of people in limbo.
The three junta-led countries jointly announced their departure at the end of January, accusing ECOWAS of abandoning its founding ideals. They also say that the regional organization has become a threat to member states.

00:00 Intro and report
03:02 DW speaks with ECOWAS and AU Analyst Emmanuel Bensah Jr.

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#ECOWAS #Juntas #Africa

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 25 days ago

Structure, Functions, and adaptations of parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem and phloem for A -level students

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 25 days ago

epithelial and connective tissues, squamous, cuboidal, columnar tissue, endocrine tissue, connective tissues

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

Drawings of plants and animal cell; functions of parts of plants and animal cells, differences between plants and animal cells. suitable for advanced level and institutions.



Although plants and animals are both living organisms, there are significant differences between the cells found in each of them.

Plant cells have some unique features that distinguish them from animal cells:

1. Cell wall: Plant cells have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose, which provides structural support and protection for the cell. Animal cells do not have a cell wall.

2. Chloroplasts: Plant cells contain chloroplasts, which are responsible for photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll and convert sunlight into energy. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.

3. Large central vacuole: Plant cells have a large central vacuole that occupies a significant portion of the cell. The vacuole stores water, nutrients, and waste products and helps maintain cell turgidity. Animal cells may have smaller vacuoles, but they are not as prominent as in plant cells.

4. Plasmodesmata: Plant cells are interconnected by tiny channels called plasmodesmata, which allow for the transport of nutrients and signals between adjacent cells. Animal cells do not have plasmodesmata.

In contrast, animal cells have some distinguishing features:

1. Centrioles: Animal cells often contain centrioles, which are involved in cell division and the formation of spindle fibers. Plant cells lack centrioles.

2. Lysosomes: Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes. Lysosomes break down waste materials and cellular debris. Plant cells may have vacuoles with some similar functions but do not have true lysosomes.

3. Cilia and flagella: Animal cells often have cilia or flagella, which are hair-like structures involved in cellular movement. Plant cells do not have cilia or flagella, although some algae, which are plant-like organisms, may have similar structures.

Despite these differences, plant and animal cells also share many similarities. Both types of cells have a nucleus that contains the genetic material (DNA), as well as similar membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells, meaning they have a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 25 days ago

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. This energy is then stored as potential energy and used by organisms for various metabolic activities.

The process of photosynthesis can be divided into two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (also known as the Calvin cycle).

Light-dependent reactions: These reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplasts and require light energy. The key steps involved in this stage are:

1. Absorption of light: Chlorophyll and other pigments in the thylakoid membrane absorb photons of light. This energy is used to excite electrons in chlorophyll.

2. Electron transport chain: Excited electrons from chlorophyll are passed along a series of electron carriers, losing energy in the process. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions (H+) across the thylakoid membrane, creating a proton gradient.

3. ATP synthesis: The proton gradient created is used to drive ATP synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. This process is called chemiosmosis.

4. Generation of reducing power: Excited electrons from chlorophyll are also used to reduce NADP+ to NADPH, another molecule that stores energy.

Light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle): These reactions occur in the stroma of the chloroplasts and do not require light directly. The key steps involved in this stage are:

1. Carbon fixation: CO2 from the atmosphere is captured and added to a 5-carbon molecule called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), forming an unstable 6-carbon molecule. This process is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco.

2. Reduction: The 6-carbon molecule is quickly split into two 3-carbon molecules called 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA). ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to convert PGA into a 3-carbon sugar called glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P).

3. Regeneration: Some G3P molecules are converted back into RuBP, while others are used to synthesize glucose and other organic molecules.

Overall, photosynthesis is a crucial process for sustaining life on Earth as it provides oxygen for respiration and serves as the primary source of energy for most living organisms.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 25 days ago

Organs of neck and muscles on the chest, abdominal structures in undisturbed form, veins from digestive system, arteries to digestive system, urinogenital system, diaphragm, visceral structures of the chest in undisturbed form and blood vessels in the neck and chest region.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 25 days ago

classification, external structures functions and adaptations, Ecology

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

preparation alkynes for vicinal dihalidespreparation of ethyne from carbonpreparation of long chain alkynesreaction of alkynes alkynes, ethyne, propynes, butynwith hydrogen chloride and hydrogen bromidesreaction of alkynes, ethyne, propynes, butyne with chlorine and bromines

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

Preparation of alkenes from alcoholspreparation of alkenes from alkylhalides
## Preparation of Alkenes from Alcohols and Alkyl Halides:

There are several methods for preparing alkenes from alcohols and alkyl halides. Here are the two most common ones:

**1. Dehydration of Alcohols:**

This method involves removing a water molecule from an alcohol to form an alkene. There are two main types of dehydration reactions:

- **Acidic dehydration:** This reaction uses concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid as a catalyst. The alcohol must have at least one beta-hydrogen (a hydrogen atom on the carbon atom next to the hydroxyl group). This reaction follows the **Saytzeff rule**, which states that the more substituted alkene will be the major product.

- **Thermal dehydration:** This reaction uses heat (around 300°C) and often involves passing the alcohol vapor over alumina as a catalyst. This method has fewer regioselectivity issues than acidic dehydration, but it often leads to a mixture of products.

**2. Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides:**

This method involves removing a hydrogen halide (like HCl or HBr) from an alkyl halide to form an alkene. There are also two main types of dehydrohalogenation reactions:

- **E2 elimination:** This reaction uses a strong base, such as potassium hydroxide or sodium ethoxide, as a catalyst. The base abstracts a proton from the beta-hydrogen, while the halide ion leaves, forming an alkene. The major product follows the **Zaitsev rule**, which is similar to the Saytzeff rule.

- **E1 elimination:** This reaction is less common and requires strong heat instead of a base. It typically occurs with tertiary alkyl halides and follows a different mechanism than E2 elimination.

**Additional points to consider:**

* The specific method used for preparing an alkene depends on the starting material, the desired product, and other factors like availability of reagents and reaction conditions.
* Both dehydration and dehydrohalogenation reactions can be regioselective, meaning that the position of the double bond in the alkene product can be controlled to some extent.
* Safety precautions are essential when working with concentrated acids, strong bases, and organic solvents.

I hope this information helps! Feel free to ask if you have any further questions or need more details on specific aspects of these reactions.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 25 days ago

Carbonium ionsreaction of alkenes with hydrogen bromide in presence a peroxideozonolysis of alkenespolymerization of alkenes

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

reaction of alkenes with chlorine, bromine and iodinereaction of propene, ethene, 2-methylpropene with water, halogens, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

Alkenes part 1
examples of alkenes, reduction of alkene, reaction of alkenes with dilute potassium permanganate, electrophylic addition reaction, reaction of alkenes with halogens, chlorine, bromine and iodine

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

Properties of alkeness
sources ofalkenes

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 25 days ago

Nomenclature of alkanes

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

Definitions of organic chemistry
Hydrocarbons
Functional groups,
Homologous series
Isomerism

Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 25 days ago

Children of Uganda (COU) Social Worker, Winnie Nakalembe, explains Uganda's education system from primary level to university. Winnie is a former COU sponsored student and program graduate.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 25 days ago

An introduction to the tangent and velocity problems. Using the slope of the secant line to approximate the slope of the tangent line to a curve at a given point. Also, using the average velocity to approximate the instantaneous velocity of an object at a specific time. An exciting start to the journey of calculus! #tangentline #tangentandvelocityproblems #calculus1 #mathtvwithprofessorv #mathprofessor #youtubemath #mathvideos #calculus #calculusvideos #calculushelp #tangentlinetoacurve #averagevelocity #instantaneousvelocity #algebra #precalculus #mathtutor

Don't forget to LIKE, Comment, & Subscribe!

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Professor V

https://linktr.ee/mathtvwithprofessorv

Calculus 2 Lecture Videos on Integration:
Integration by parts: https://youtu.be/0klrkpMUsXA
Tabular Integration: https://youtu.be/pzhJciqIrzw
Trigonometric integrals: https://youtu.be/0MqaL3fwPu4
Trigonometric Substitution: https://youtu.be/rAH-dRxQ4o0
Partial Fraction Decomposition: https://youtu.be/mT25uSspHIU
Strategy for Integration: https://youtu.be/P_smvpnX3_g
Improper Integrals: https://youtu.be/Q0zD3GjXJ1s

Trig Review:
Unit Circle: https://youtu.be/nl84YXi1_3A
Trig Identities: https://youtu.be/SLVrNGi1Br0
Sum and Difference Formulas: https://youtu.be/9kC8gwkxf6A
Double Angle & Half-Angle Formulas: https://youtu.be/EaF57Y4B2uY

Calculus 3 Video Lectures:
https://youtube.com/playlist?l....ist=PLl-Np5U6u5E65pR

#mathtvwithprofessorv #integration #partialfractions #partialfractionmethod #partialfractiondecomposition #trigonometricsubstitution #trigintegrals #trigsubstitution #integrals #integralcalculus #calculus2 #calculusvideos #calculus2videos #integralvideos #trigonometricintegrals #math #youtubemath #mathvideos #mathtutor #mathprofessor #calculusvideos #integrationbyparts #integralcalculus

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*This video is copy protected and cannot be downloaded or used in any capacity without my permission.*

Mpatswe Francis
3 Views · 25 days ago

Makerere University is looking to add value to the research conducted by the university students in order to make it commercially viable. According to Vice Chancellor Prof. Barnabas Nawangwe, this will be done through channeling resources to the university’s innovation pod, where researchers and innovators will converge to share knowledge and best practices. Prof Nawangwe's call came on the last day of the university’s 74th graduation ceremony where Henry Ssuubi, a student whose 4-year stay at Makerere has been tracked by NTV finally earned his degree in Mechanical Engineering.






#NTVNews #NTVTonight #NTVWeekendEdition

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Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 25 days ago

Health Minister Dr. Jane Ruth Acheng has cautioned Ugandans to follow established guidelines to avoid getting infected with a now-spreading Covid-19 virus. She urged Ugandans to consider wearing masks at all times, washing hands with soap and avoiding big crowds aimed to reduce the spread of Covid-19. The minister's caution follows the death of two people in Kabale district from Covid-19.




#NTVNews #NTVTonight #NTVWeekendEdition

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Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 25 days ago

U.S. officials said retaliatory U.S. airstrikes began Friday in Syria and Iraq for the deadly drone strike that killed three American soldiers and wounded at least 47 other service members.

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#biden #drone #jordan #soldiers #military #abcnews #news

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 25 days ago

In this video , we look at how to derive the equation of motion of a simple pendulum using the concepts of calculus of variations

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 25 days ago

I had a request for a spicier integral of the day, so I hope this fits the bill! Enjoy!

Don't forget to LIKE, Comment, & Subscribe!

xoxo,
Professor V

https://linktr.ee/mathtvwithprofessorv

Calculus 2 Lecture Videos on Integration:
Integration by parts: https://youtu.be/0klrkpMUsXA
Tabular Integration: https://youtu.be/pzhJciqIrzw
Trigonometric integrals: https://youtu.be/0MqaL3fwPu4
Trigonometric Substitution: https://youtu.be/rAH-dRxQ4o0
Partial Fraction Decomposition: https://youtu.be/mT25uSspHIU
Strategy for Integration: https://youtu.be/P_smvpnX3_g
Improper Integrals: https://youtu.be/Q0zD3GjXJ1s

Trig Review:
Unit Circle: https://youtu.be/nl84YXi1_3A
Trig Identities: https://youtu.be/SLVrNGi1Br0
Sum and Difference Formulas: https://youtu.be/9kC8gwkxf6A
Double Angle & Half-Angle Formulas: https://youtu.be/EaF57Y4B2uY

Calculus 3 Video Lectures:
https://youtube.com/playlist?l....ist=PLl-Np5U6u5E65pR

#mathtvwithprofessorv #integration #partialfractions #partialfractionmethod #partialfractiondecomposition #trigonometricsubstitution #trigintegrals #trigsubstitution #integrals #integralcalculus #calculus2 #calculusvideos #calculus2videos #integralvideos #trigonometricintegrals #math #youtubemath #mathvideos #mathtutor #mathprofessor #calculusvideos #integrationbyparts #integralcalculus

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https://www.patreon.com/mathtvwithprofessorv


*This video is copy protected and cannot be downloaded or used in any capacity without my permission.*

Landus Mumbere Expedito
10 Views · 25 days ago

⁣Joining high school can be an exciting but also overwhelming experience. Here's some general guidance to help you navigate your new journey:


Academics:




Get organized: Develop a system for managing your homework, assignments, and deadlines. A planner, calendar app, or notebook can be helpful.


Find your learning style: Do you learn best by listening, reading, or doing? Knowing your style will help you find effective study methods.


Don't be afraid to ask for help: If you're struggling in a subject, don't hesitate to ask your teacher or a tutor for help.


Challenge yourself: Step outside your comfort zone and consider taking advanced classes or electives that interest you.


Balance is key: While academics are important, make sure to leave time for activities and hobbies you enjoy.




Social Life:




Be open-minded: High school is a great time to meet new people from diverse backgrounds. Don't be afraid to step outside your comfort zone and connect with others.


Join clubs and activities: Get involved in activities you enjoy, whether it's sports, music, or student government. This is a great way to make friends and explore your interests.


Be respectful: Treat everyone with kindness and respect, even if you don't always agree with them.


Find your support system: Surround yourself with positive people who make you feel good about yourself. This could be friends, family, or teachers.




Personal Growth:




Discover your passions: Explore different activities and interests to find what you're truly passionate about.


Develop good habits: Time management, self-discipline, and healthy communication are all essential life skills.


Embrace challenges: High school will present its share of challenges, but view them as opportunities to learn and grow.


Seek guidance: Don't be afraid to ask for help from trusted adults like counselors, teachers, or family members.


Remember, you are not alone: Everyone experiences ups and downs in high school. Talk to friends, family, or a counselor if you're feeling overwhelmed.




Additional Tips:




Get involved in your community: Volunteering and participating in community events is a great way to give back and gain valuable experience.


Stay organized: This includes staying organized with your belongings, your schedule, and your mind.


Take care of yourself: Make sure to get enough sleep, eat healthy foods, and exercise regularly.


Enjoy the experience: High school is a time for learning, growing, and making memories. Relax, have fun, and make the most of it!




Remember, everyone's high school experience is different. Find what works best for you and don't be afraid to ask for help along the way. Best of luck!

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 25 days ago

In this video, I take you through the topic trigonometry.
You will be able to learn how use trigonometrical identities to solve equations in trigonometry and also to prove and derive unique identities in trigonometry.
Worked examples from U.A.C.E UNEB Question Bank have also been included in this video.
This video is suitable to A-level students in Senior Five and Six offering Principle Mathematics as part of their combination. E.g. (PCM, BCM, PEM, PMT, PMA, MEG, MET, MEF, MEA e.t.c.)

Landus Mumbere Expedito
9 Views · 25 days ago

Maths made simple

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 26 days ago

⁣Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the sides and angles of triangles. It is useful for solving problems in various fields such as physics, engineering, and astronomy. Trigonometry involves the use of trigonometric functions such as sine, cosine, and tangent to calculate angles and distances in triangles. It also includes concepts such as the unit circle, Pythagorean theorem, and inverse trigonometric functions. Trigonometry has practical applications in navigation, surveying, and even the design of video games and animations.

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 26 days ago

After a long struggle, all 27 EU states have agreed to a multi-billion euro financial package for Ukraine at the special summit in Brussels. EU Council President Charles Michel announced the agreement: 50 billion euros in financial aid is to flow into Ukraine by 2027.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky praised the agreement reached by the EU states. The commitment will strengthen the long-term economic and financial stability of his country.

Chapters
00:00 EU agrees on aid package for Ukraine
02:04 Ursula von der Leyen, European Commission President
02:44 Yevheniia Kravchuk, Ukrainian Lawmaker

#ukrainewar #europeanunion #ukraine

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Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 26 days ago

President Xi used his New Year's message to warn Taiwan it would "surely be reunified" with China.

However, if Xi Jinping wanted to go to war, when might he make a move and how worried should the world be for the self-governed island?

#china #taiwan

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
28 Views · 26 days ago

In this video, I have tried to answer all Questions of UNEB Sub ICT 2023 Paper 1. Hopefully, it helps you in your revision, and those who didn't do the paper can learn more from it as well.

I welcome comments on guidance in case a certain Roman (Question) was not well addressed.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 26 days ago

This videos elaborates how to work with composite functions

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 26 days ago

How does the Internet work? The video you are watching now traveled thousands of miles from a Google data center to reach you. Let’s learn how the Internet works by getting to understand the details of this data’s incredible journey.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
3 Views · 26 days ago

This lecture has been viewed about 17 million times. About 1 million times on MIT's OCW, 7 million times in the channel "For the Allure of Physics" and about 9 million times in this channel. Walter Lewin puts his life on the line to demonstrate that he is a strong believer in the conservation of energy. He explained why the sky is blue, why the clouds are white and why sunsets are red. Great demonstrations! MIT video streamed this lecture in real time. It was viewed live by about 25 thousand people all over the world.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 26 days ago

OMG!

#WalterLewin #physics

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 26 days ago

The narrower the pipe section, the lower the pressure in the liquid or gas flowing through this section. This paradoxical fact, following from the law of conservation of energy, is called the Bernoulli principle or law.

Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 27 days ago

In a groundbreaking display of Nari Shakti, female personnel from CRPF, BSF, and SSB showcased their courage and skill by performing daring motorcycle stunts during the Republic Day Parade. For the first time, these women demonstrated exceptional prowess, embodying strength and resilience. The spectacle not only celebrated their individual accomplishments but also symbolized the collective empowerment of women in the country's security forces, adding a remarkable and inspiring chapter to the Republic Day festivities.

#RepublicDay2024 #KartavyaPath #India

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Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 27 days ago

The world’s biggest cruise ship, the Icon of the Seas, has set sail on its maiden voyage from Miami, Florida.

It measures 365 metres in length and weighs 251,000 gross tonnes.

But how does it compare to other vessels and large iconic buildings like Madison Square Garden or the Eiffel Tower?

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 27 days ago

The scales of the universe refer to the different sizes at which objects and phenomena exist in the cosmos. Here are some commonly used scales of the universe, ranging from the smallest to the largest:

1. Quantum Scale: This scale deals with the behavior of subatomic particles, such as quarks, leptons, and bosons. It is described by quantum mechanics and includes phenomena like particle interactions, wave-particle duality, and quantum entanglement.

2. Atomic and Molecular Scale: At this scale, objects such as atoms and molecules exist. It includes the study of atomic structure, chemical bonding, and molecular interactions. Fields like chemistry and molecular biology operate at this scale.

3. Cellular and Biological Scale: This scale encompasses the study of living organisms and their cellular components. It includes cells, organelles, and biological molecules like DNA, proteins, and enzymes. Biology and genetics are primarily concerned with this scale.

4. Human Scale: This scale relates to the size and dimensions of the human body and objects that we commonly interact with. It includes human anatomy, physiology, and various human-made structures such as buildings and vehicles.

5. Planetary Scale: At this scale, celestial bodies like planets, moons, asteroids, and comets exist. It includes the study of their formation, geology, atmosphere, and interaction with other bodies in the solar system.

6. Stellar Scale: This scale encompasses stars and their properties, such as their size, mass, temperature, and brightness. Stellar evolution, fusion reactions, and the life cycle of stars are studied at this scale.

7. Galactic Scale: At this scale, galaxies exist, which are vast collections of stars, gas, dust, and dark matter. It includes the study of galaxy formation, structure, dynamics, and the interactions between galaxies.

8. Cosmic Scale: This scale deals with the large-scale structure of the universe, including galaxy clusters, superclusters, and cosmic voids. It involves studying the distribution of matter and the large-scale properties of the universe, such as its expansion and the cosmic microwave background radiation.

9. Universal Scale: This is the largest scale encompassing the entire observable universe. It includes all matter, energy, space, and time. Understanding the origin, evolution, and fate of the universe itself is the primary focus at this scale.

These scales help scientists categorize and study objects and phenomena based on their sizes and characteristics, allowing us to better comprehend the vastness and complexity of the universe.

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 27 days ago

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 27 days ago

Learning Outcomes
By the end of the lesson, a learner should be able to;
Mention at least four communication devices and their use
Define an adjective
Describe communication devices using adjectives and modifiers
Use comparatives to compare at least three pairs of devices

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 28 days ago

Elon Musk's company Neuralink has successfully implanted one of its wireless brain chips in a human for the first time. Musk has said that the initial results detecting nerve impulses.

#elonmusk #neuralink #brainchip

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Mpatswe Francis
9 Views · 28 days ago

US, UK, Canada, Italy & Others Cut Funding To UN Agency In Gaza: Here's Why

The list of countries suspending or halting funding to the United Nations Relief Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees or the UNRWA is only getting longer. The US, the leading donor of UNRWA, has suspended all additional funding. The UN agency has been linked to the October 7 attack on Israel. Which countries have cut funding to the UNRWA? What are Israel's allegations? And what is the UN's defence? Watch this video to find out.

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Israel Hamas War | UNRWA | United States | UK | Canada | Italy | Firstpost | World News | Latest News | Global News | International News | Trending News

#israelhamaswar #unrwa #unitedstates #uk #canada #italy #firstpost #worldnews #latestnews #globalnews #internationalnews #trendingnews

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Mpatswe Francis
9 Views · 28 days ago

The three Americans who were killed in a deadly drone attack on a U.S. military base in Jordan have now been identified and the Biden administration is weighing its next steps. NBC’s Keir Simmons reports for TODAY.

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#military #jordan #worldnews

Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 28 days ago

Nikki Haley is pushing for strikes against Iran following the death of three U.S. troops. Meanwhile, the former U.N. ambassador is staying in the race for president despite some saying she should call it quits.

Each weekday morning, "CBS Mornings" co-hosts Gayle King, Tony Dokoupil and Nate Burleson bring you the latest breaking news, smart conversation and in-depth feature reporting. "CBS Mornings" airs weekdays at 7 a.m. on CBS and stream it at 8 a.m. ET on the CBS News app.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 29 days ago

Welcome to our S.2 Mathematics lesson where we dive into the intriguing world of Linear Inequalities. 📈

In this lesson, we will explore two key aspects:

1. **Solving Linear Inequalities:** We will unravel the art of solving linear inequalities, providing you with the tools and techniques to handle a variety of inequality problems.

2. **Representing Linear Inequalities Graphically:** Discover the power of visualization as we learn how to represent linear inequalities graphically. This graphical representation adds a whole new dimension to understanding inequalities.

📋 **Lesson Highlights:**
- Understanding the basics of linear inequalities.
- Step-by-step problem-solving techniques for solving linear inequalities.
- Introduction to the number line and its role in representing inequalities.
- Drawing and interpreting graphs of linear inequalities.

📊 **Why Learn Linear Inequalities?**
Linear inequalities play a crucial role in various fields, from economics and engineering to everyday decision-making. Mastery of this topic is a valuable skill in problem-solving.

📚 **Additional Resources:**
- Practice exercises to reinforce your understanding.

Join us in this engaging lesson to build a strong foundation in linear inequalities. Stay tuned for more math insights and don't forget to hit the "Subscribe" button to keep up with our lessons. Your mathematical journey begins here! 🧮📚

Landus Mumbere Expedito
10 Views · 29 days ago

⁣Linear inequalities are mathematical expressions that compare two quantities using inequality symbols such as < (less than), > (greater than), ≤ (less than or equal to), or ≥ (greater than or equal to). These inequalities involve linear functions, meaning every term in the inequality has a degree of 1.

For example, consider the linear inequality 2x + 3 < 7. This inequality states that the expression 2x + 3 is less than 7. To solve this inequality, we can follow these steps:

1. Subtract 3 from both sides: 2x + 3 - 3 < 7 - 3
Simplified: 2x < 4

2. Divide both sides by 2: (2x) / 2 < 4 / 2
Simplified: x < 2

Therefore, the solution to the linear inequality 2x + 3 < 7 is x < 2. This means that any value of x less than 2 would satisfy the inequality.

Linear inequalities can also involve variables on both sides of the inequality symbol. For example, consider the linear inequality 3x - 2 ≥ 5x + 1. To solve this inequality, we can follow similar steps:

1. Subtract 5x from both sides: 3x - 2 - 5x ≥ 5x + 1 - 5x
Simplified: -2x - 2 ≥ 1

2. Add 2 to both sides: -2x - 2 + 2 ≥ 1 + 2
Simplified: -2x ≥ 3

3. Divide both sides by -2 and reverse the inequality symbol: (-2x) / -2 ≤ 3 / -2
Simplified: x ≤ -3/2

Therefore, the solution to the linear inequality 3x - 2 ≥ 5x + 1 is x ≤ -3/2. This means that any value of x less than or equal to -3/2 would satisfy the inequality.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 29 days ago

The equations of linear motion are used to understand the position, velocity, and acceleration of an object moving in a straight line. There are four main equations of linear motion, which are:

1. s = ut + 1/2 at^2 - This equation relates the distance traveled s by an object to its initial velocity u, acceleration a, and time t.

2. v = u + at - This equation relates the final velocity v of an object to its initial velocity u, acceleration a, and time t.

3. v^2 = u^2 + 2as - This equation relates the final velocity v of an object to its initial velocity u, acceleration a, and the distance traveled s.

4. s = (u + v) t / 2 - This equation relates the distance traveled s by an object in terms of its initial velocity u, final velocity v, and time t.

Here,
s = distance traveled by the object
u = initial velocity of the object
v = final velocity of the object
a = acceleration of the object
t = time taken for the motion

These four equations can be used to solve a variety of problems related to linear motion. For example, if we know the initial velocity, acceleration, and time taken by an object, we can use the first equation to calculate the distance traveled by the object. Similarly, if we know the initial and final velocities and the acceleration, we can use the third equation to calculate the distance traveled by the object.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 29 days ago

Linear motion refers to the motion of a particle or an object in a straight line. The object moves along a path without any change in direction. The speed or velocity of the object may vary, but its direction remains constant. A common example of linear motion is a car traveling along a straight road.

On the other hand, nonlinear motion refers to the motion of a particle or an object in a curved or non-straight path. In nonlinear motion, the path of the object is not a straight line, and it may change direction at any point. The speed or velocity of the object may also vary.

Nonlinear motion can be divided into two main categories: uniform circular motion and accelerated motion. In uniform circular motion, the object moves in a circular path with a constant speed but changing direction. A common example of uniform circular motion is a satellite orbiting around the Earth.

In accelerated motion, the speed or velocity of the object changes with time. The object may accelerate in a straight line or in a curved path. A common example of accelerated motion is a car accelerating from rest and then coming to a stop.

Overall, the main difference between linear and nonlinear motion is the path of the object. In linear motion, the object moves along a straight path, while in nonlinear motion, the path of the object may be curved or non-straight.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 29 days ago

Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants, algae, and some bacteria convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose (a simple sugar) and oxygen. It is a crucial biological process that occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells.

During photosynthesis, light energy is absorbed by pigments in the chloroplasts, primarily chlorophyll. This energy is used to power a series of chemical reactions that take place in two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (also known as the Calvin cycle).

In the light-dependent reactions, light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). These energy carriers are used in the next stage of photosynthesis.

In the light-independent reactions, also known as the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH are utilized to convert carbon dioxide into glucose. This process involves a series of chemical reactions that use enzymes to catalyze the formation of glucose. The glucose produced can be used by the plant as an energy source or stored as starch for later use.

Photosynthesis not only provides energy-rich glucose for the plant but also produces oxygen as a byproduct. This oxygen is released into the atmosphere and is vital for supporting aerobic respiration in many organisms.

Overall, photosynthesis is an essential process that allows plants, algae, and certain bacteria to convert sunlight into chemical energy in the form of glucose. It plays a crucial role in sustaining plant life and maintaining the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. Additionally, photosynthesis acts as the primary source of energy for most ecosystems on our planet.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
9 Views · 29 days ago

Autotrophic nutrition is a mode of nutrition in which an organism synthesizes its own food using simple inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide and water, with the help of energy from sunlight or inorganic chemical reactions. Autotrophs are organisms that have the ability to produce organic compounds from inorganic sources.

There are two main types of autotrophs: photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs. Photoautotrophs use sunlight as a source of energy and are able to convert carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds by the process of photosynthesis. Examples of photoautotrophs include plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.

Chemoautotrophs, on the other hand, obtain their energy from chemical reactions involving inorganic compounds, such as sulfur, nitrogen, or iron. They can use the energy from these reactions to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds. Examples of chemoautotrophs include some bacteria and archaea.

Autotrophic nutrition is important for the biosphere because it forms the basis of the food chain. Autotrophs are the primary producers that provide the energy and organic compounds essential for the survival of all other organisms. Through photosynthesis, autotrophs also release oxygen into the atmosphere, which is utilized by many organisms for respiration.

Overall, autotrophic nutrition is a unique mode of nutrition that enables organisms to produce their own food without relying on other organisms. It plays a vital role in sustaining life on Earth and maintaining ecological balance.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 29 days ago

Electrical potential
emf
Potential difference
Types of cells

Landus Mumbere Expedito
10 Views · 29 days ago

⁣Ordinary level Current Electricity is a branch of physics that focuses on the study of electric currents and their behavior in circuits. It is typically taught at the Ordinary level (O-level), which is a secondary school level of education.

In this subject, students learn about the fundamental concepts and principles of electricity, such as electric charge, electric current, electric potential difference (voltage), and electric resistance. They also study the behavior of these parameters in different types of circuits, such as series circuits and parallel circuits.

Some of the main topics covered in Ordinary level Current Electricity include:

1. Electric circuits: Students learn about the components of an electric circuit, such as resistors, capacitors, and batteries. They study the flow of electric charge in a closed loop and how to calculate the total resistance in a series or parallel circuit.

2. Ohm's Law: Ohm's Law relates the current flowing through a conductor to the voltage across it and the resistance of the conductor. Students learn how to apply Ohm's Law to calculate various quantities related to current, voltage, and resistance in a circuit.

3. Electric power and energy: Students learn about the concepts of power and energy in electrical circuits. They study how to calculate the power dissipated or consumed by various components in a circuit and understand the relationship between power, current, and voltage.

4. Electrical safety: Students are taught about the importance of electrical safety and precautions to be taken when working with electricity. They learn about the potential hazards associated with electric shocks and how to prevent accidents.

5. Circuit diagrams: Students learn how to interpret and draw circuit diagrams, which are graphical representations of electrical circuits. They understand the symbols used for different components and how to analyze circuits based on their diagrams.

Throughout the course, students are also exposed to practical activities and experiments to reinforce their theoretical understanding of current electricity. They learn how to use electrical measuring instruments, such as ammeters and voltmeters, to measure current and voltage in circuits.

Overall, Ordinary level Current Electricity provides students with a foundational understanding of the principles and applications of electric currents in circuits. It serves as a basis for further studies in physics and related fields, including Advanced level (A-level) and university-level courses.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 29 days ago

Definition of a function
Examples of functions
Solving functions

Landus Mumbere Expedito
8 Views · 29 days ago

⁣Mappings and relations are concepts in mathematics that involve the relationship between two sets or groups of elements.

A mapping, also known as a function, is a relation between two sets in which each element from the first set (domain) is paired with exactly one element from the second set (codomain). In other words, a mapping assigns each element of the domain to a unique element in the codomain.

For example, consider the mapping f: {1, 2, 3} -> {a, b, c}, where f(1) = a, f(2) = b, and f(3) = c. This mapping assigns each element in the domain {1, 2, 3} to a unique element in the codomain {a, b, c}.

Mappings can also be represented using tables, graphs, or algebraic expressions. They are widely used in various mathematical concepts, such as calculus, algebra, and discrete mathematics.

A relation, on the other hand, is a general concept that describes any connection or association between elements of two sets. Relations do not necessarily have to be one-to-one or onto like mappings. They can be many-to-one, one-to-many, or even many-to-many.

For example, consider the relation R = {(1, a), (1, b), (2, c), (3, a)}. This relation represents the connections between elements of the set {1, 2, 3} and the set {a, b, c}. In this case, the element 1 is related to both a and b, and hence, it is a many-to-many relation.

Relations can also be represented using tables, graphs, or algebraic expressions. They are used in various areas of mathematics, such as number theory, algebraic structures, and set theory.

In summary, mappings and relations are essential concepts in mathematics that describe the relationships between elements of two sets. Mappings, also known as functions, assign each element of the domain to a unique element in the codomain, while relations describe general connections or associations between elements of two sets, which can be one-to-one, onto, many-to-one, one-to-many, or even many-to-many.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 29 days ago

⁣Mappings and relations are concepts in mathematics that involve the relationship between two sets or groups of elements.

A mapping, also known as a function, is a relation between two sets in which each element from the first set (domain) is paired with exactly one element from the second set (codomain). In other words, a mapping assigns each element of the domain to a unique element in the codomain.

For example, consider the mapping f: {1, 2, 3} -> {a, b, c}, where f(1) = a, f(2) = b, and f(3) = c. This mapping assigns each element in the domain {1, 2, 3} to a unique element in the codomain {a, b, c}.

Mappings can also be represented using tables, graphs, or algebraic expressions. They are widely used in various mathematical concepts, such as calculus, algebra, and discrete mathematics.

A relation, on the other hand, is a general concept that describes any connection or association between elements of two sets. Relations do not necessarily have to be one-to-one or onto like mappings. They can be many-to-one, one-to-many, or even many-to-many.

For example, consider the relation R = {(1, a), (1, b), (2, c), (3, a)}. This relation represents the connections between elements of the set {1, 2, 3} and the set {a, b, c}. In this case, the element 1 is related to both a and b, and hence, it is a many-to-many relation.

Relations can also be represented using tables, graphs, or algebraic expressions. They are used in various areas of mathematics, such as number theory, algebraic structures, and set theory.

In summary, mappings and relations are essential concepts in mathematics that describe the relationships between elements of two sets. Mappings, also known as functions, assign each element of the domain to a unique element in the codomain, while relations describe general connections or associations between elements of two sets, which can be one-to-one, onto, many-to-one, one-to-many, or even many-to-many.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 29 days ago

This Video details how to handle and manage project work in the new lower secondary Curriculum

Landus Mumbere Expedito
2 Views · 29 days ago

Identify potential sources of stress
Early recognition of signs & symptoms and work on the issues
Look at practical stress management techniques.
Identify a range of coping strategies.
Put emphasis on the benefits of balancing work with personal life.
Use strategies that help one manage their workload.
Promote sharing experiences in order to build a supportive social group while encouraging collaboration

Landus Mumbere Expedito
4 Views · 29 days ago

learning Advanced level Maths

Landus Mumbere Expedito
1 Views · 29 days ago

KEY AREAS IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP PAPER ONE

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 29 days ago

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
NUMERICAL METHODS
MECHANICS

Landus Mumbere Expedito
12 Views · 29 days ago

New Curriculum
Competency based
Generic skills
Builders frame work

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 30 days ago

US President Joe Biden promised America ‘shall respond’ after three US troops were killed and a dozen more injured following a drone strike in Jordan near the border of Syria. | Subscribe and 🔔: http://9Soci.al/KM6e50GjSK9 | Get more breaking news at 9News.com.au: http://9Soci.al/iyCO50GjSK6

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Join 9News for the latest in news and events that affect you in your local city, as well as news from across Australia and the world.

#9News #BreakingNews #NineNewsAustralia #9NewsAUS

Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 30 days ago

Three US service members were killed and dozens may be wounded after an unmanned aerial drone attack on US forces stationed in north-eastern Jordan near the Syrian border. US President Joe Biden blamed Iran-backed groups for the attack.

#us #jordan #droneattack


About Channel:

WION The World is One News examines global issues with in-depth analysis. We provide much more than the news of the day. Our aim is to empower people to explore their world. With our Global headquarters in New Delhi, we bring you news on the hour, by the hour. We deliver information that is not biased. We are journalists who are neutral to the core and non-partisan when it comes to world politics. People are tired of biased reportage and we stand for a globalized united world. So for us, the World is truly One.

Please keep discussions on this channel clean and respectful and refrain from using racist or sexist slurs and personal insults.

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Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 30 days ago

US, Germany, Japan & Others Cut Funding to Gaza. Here's Why.

Officials of the United Nations have urged countries across the globe to reconsider a pause in funding for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency, or UNRWA. The agency provides aid to Gaza and other regions. Countries like the US and Germany have stopped funding the agency. This happened after Israel alleged that some of the agency’s staff members were a part of the October 7, 2023, Hamas attack.

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Israel-Hamas War | Gaza | United Nations | UNRWA | US | Germany | Japan | Firstpost | World News | Latest News | Global News | International News | Trending News

#israelhamaswar #unitednations #unrwa #us #germany #japan #gaza #firstpost #worldnews #latestnews #globalnews #internationalnews #trendingnews

Firstpost is an Indian news and media website. Get all the incisive opinions, in-depth analyses and other visual stories that matter to you and the world right here on this channel.

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 30 days ago

Choosing a school for our children is more than just preparing them for exams or jobs. In Uganda, some parents face a dilemma: do we want our kids to memorize facts or learn with depth and wisdom? Surprisingly, some parents like schools that make kids stressed and fearful, focusing more on finishing lots of lessons than on quality learning.

Today, let's talk about what makes a school 'good.' Should it only focus on passing exams, or should it help our kids truly understand and be ready for life? It's time to rethink how we choose schools, aiming for an education that nurtures our children's understanding, skills, and a successful lifelong journey.

Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 1 month ago

Streaming now at https://abc7chicago.com/watch/live/11064984/.

Three American troops were killed and "many" were wounded Sunday in a drone strike in northeast Jordan near the Syrian border, President Joe Biden said.

Full story: https://abc7chicago.com/three-....americans-killed-jor

Landus Mumbere Expedito
9 Views · 1 month ago

Are we modelling the right behaviour around our children?
Are we willing to fix ourselves as adults so that we present the best versions of ourselves to them?
Are you aware of what kind of world you are creating or have created around your children? How are you preparing them for Life?

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 1 month ago

1¼cup of flour
Prestige about 2 table spoons
Cinnamon powder
Mixed spices
¾a cup of sugar
Baking powder
1 egg
1 lemon
Water

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 1 month ago

Joseph Tamale Mirundi is a Ugandan journalist, author and political analyst who appears on the STV political show Sharp Talk with Tamale Mirundi. In 2022, Tamale opened up an online newspaper where he publishes news and information named Kab News

Landus Mumbere Expedito
1 Views · 1 month ago

Created by @hakimtheblackbutterfly #tiktok #trending #shortsfeed #newvideo #youtubeshorts #instagram #subscribe @youtubecreater47 @youtubecreators @rkcreationsvlog @Biology made easy#biology#cytology

Mpatswe Francis
26 Views · 1 month ago

Kelsy Kerubo performing Siku Yetu.
#kelsykerubo #Sikuyetu Member of #msanii_music_group

#WeddingSong or #SwahiliWeddingSongs

Video Directed by: Miwo Bp
Audio Produced by: EsyNet Records
Instrumental by: Sheiy The King
1st AC: Danny Igiza
Drone Pilot: Nesh Drones
Gaffer: Alexis Kabambi
Grip: Brian Wise
BTS Photogarphy: Africa Magic Studios
Production House: Zidi Media Studios
Makeup: Mima Makeup
Dressed by: Gardissa Ke
Prawo collections
Decor and setup: Edonsmil Events & Decor Services
Catering: Hillary's Food Hut & Catering





Join this channel to get access to perks:
https://www.youtube.com/channe....l/UCAgoAjMQDl1F5SuoN

Mpatswe Francis
9 Views · 1 month ago

Best Playlist Of Sinach Gospel Songs 2024- Most Popular Sinach Songs Of All Time Playlist
hhttps://youtu.be/k1aTAgXYOcI
#sinachofficial
#sinacrash
#iknowwhoiam
#waymaker
#GospelForLife
#worship

Mpatswe Francis
11 Views · 1 month ago

Kelsy Kerubo performing Nina Haja Na Wewe.
#kelsykerubo #ninahajanawewe Member of #msanii_music_group
Video Directed by: Miwo Bp
Audio Produced by: EsyNet Records
Production House: Zidi Media Studios
1st AC: Alexis. K
MUA: Arthuro makeup
Dressed by: Gardissa Apparel
Prawo collections

Join this channel to get access to perks:
https://www.youtube.com/channe....l/UCAgoAjMQDl1F5SuoN

tebtalks
4 Views · 1 month ago

😍😍😍

Mpatswe Francis
4 Views · 1 month ago

🤑🤑🤑🤑😍😍

Mpatswe Francis
3 Views · 1 month ago

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Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 1 month ago

⁣In Microsoft Excel, the AND function is a logical function that checks whether all conditions in a set of arguments are true. It returns TRUE if all conditions are true, and FALSE if any one of the conditions is false.
The syntax for the
AND
function is as follows:
excel
Copy code
=AND(logical1, [logical2], ...)
logical1
,
logical2
, ... : These are the conditions you want to test. You can include up to 255 conditions.
Here's a simple example:
excel
Copy code
=AND(A1>10, B1="Approved")
In this example, the
AND
function checks whether both conditions are true: the value in cell A1 is greater than 10, and the value in cell B1 is "Approved." If both conditions are true, the function returns TRUE; otherwise, it returns FALSE.
You can also use the
AND
function in conjunction with other functions or within more complex logical expressions. For instance:
excel
Copy code
=IF(AND(A1>10, B1="Approved"), "Yes", "No")
In this example, the
IF
function is used with the
AND
function to display "Yes" if both conditions are true and "No" if any one of the conditions is false.

Mpatswe Francis
8 Views · 1 month ago

😇😇😇😇😇

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

🤔🤔🤔

Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 1 month ago

😍😍😍

Mpatswe Francis
66 Views · 1 month ago

#GENTILGEDEONOFFICIAL #GGO #AFRINOVATORS #INFINITYTECHDRIVERS #KAMBERE

Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 1 month ago

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Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 1 month ago

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Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 1 month ago

⁣Gmail is comprised of various components and features that work together to provide users with a comprehensive email experience. Here are the main parts of Gmail:
Inbox:
The primary interface where users receive and view their emails.
Emails are organized based on tabs like Primary, Social, Promotions, etc.
Compose:
The section where users can create and send new emails.
Includes options for formatting, attachments, and inserting images.
Sent Mail:
Stores copies of emails that have been sent by the user.
Drafts:
Saves unfinished or unsent emails for future editing and sending.
Trash:
Contains deleted emails. Emails remain in the Trash for a certain period before being permanently deleted.
Spam:
Filters and stores unwanted or suspicious emails.
Labels:
Allows users to categorize and organize emails using labels.
Labels function as tags that can be applied to emails for easy identification.
Filters:
Enables users to set up rules to automatically categorize, archive, or delete emails based on specific criteria.
Search Bar:
A powerful search feature that helps users find emails using keywords, sender names, dates, and other search criteria.
Settings:
Provides access to account settings, general preferences, and customization options.
Themes:
Allows users to personalize the appearance of their Gmail inbox by choosing from various themes.
Chat and Meet:
Integration with Google Chat for real-time messaging.
Integration with Google Meet for scheduling and joining video meetings.
Tasks:
Enables users to create to-do lists and manage tasks within Gmail.
Google Drive Integration:
Allows users to attach files directly from Google Drive to emails.
Google Workspace Integration:
Gmail is part of Google Workspace, providing seamless integration with other Google productivity tools like Calendar, Docs, Sheets, and more.
Mobile App:
Gmail is accessible through mobile apps for Android and iOS devices.
Offline Mode:
Allows users to access and respond to emails even without an internet connection.
These components collectively contribute to the functionality and usability of Gmail as an email service.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 1 month ago

This video talks about the definition of the enthalpy of atomisation and how it helps calculate the Bond enthalpy, sublimation enthalpy, etc., in various cases.

00:00- Introduction
2:35- Relationship between atomisation enthalpy and bond enthalpy
4:30- Worked example

Practice this concept - “https://www.khanacademy.org/sc....ience/physical-chemi

Check out more videos and exercises on “Thermodynamics” - https://www.khanacademy.org/sc....ience/physical-chemi

To get you fully ready for your exam and help you fall in love with “Chemistry”, find the complete bank of exercises and videos for “Class 11 Chemistry” here - https://www.khanacademy.org/sc....ience/class-11-chemi

Khan Academy is a free learning platform for Class 1-12 students with videos, exercises, and tests for maths, science, and more subjects. Our content is aligned to CBSE syllabus and available in Hindi, English, and many more regional languages.


Experience the joy of easy, seamless, accessible learning anywhere, anytime with Khan Academy.


Subscribe to our YouTube channel - https://www.youtube.com/c/khanacademy

As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help!
Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc

Created by
Jitin Nair

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 1 month ago

This video talks about the definition of the standard enthalpy of combustion. It also helps us identify the relationship between the standard enthalpy of combustion and the calorific value for a given fuel. This helps us compare different fuels.

00:00- Introduction
2:14- Is combustion enthalpy always negative?
2:34- Comparing fuels using combustion enthalpy values.
4:13- Calculating enthalpy of formation using combustion enthalpy values.

Practice this concept - “https://www.khanacademy.org/sc....ience/physical-chemi

Check out more videos and exercises on “Thermodynamics” - https://www.khanacademy.org/sc....ience/physical-chemi

To get you fully ready for your exam and help you fall in love with “Chemistry”, find the complete bank of exercises and videos for “Class 11 Chemistry” here -https://www.khanacademy.org/sc....ience/class-11-chemi

Khan Academy is a free learning platform for Class 1-12 students with videos, exercises, and tests for maths, science, and more subjects. Our content is aligned to CBSE syllabus and available in Hindi, English, and many more regional languages.


Experience the joy of easy, seamless, accessible learning anywhere, anytime with Khan Academy.


Subscribe to our YouTube channel - https://www.youtube.com/c/khanacademy

As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, we would love your help!
Donate here: https://www.khanacademy.org/donate?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=desc

Created by
Jitin Nair

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 1 month ago

TV LESSON SS3 is a Lagos state online class for SS3 student in preparation for WAEC.
Subscribe- be the first to view our latest videos
Connect with WazobiaMax TV on social media:

Follow WazobiaMax TV on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/wa...

Follow WazobiaMax TV on instagra m: https://www.instagram.com/w...

Follow #WazobiaMax TV on Twitter: https://twitter.com/wazobiamax

Landus Mumbere Expedito
9 Views · 1 month ago

This episode gives you a detailed introduction of a subtopic Histology under a topic of Cell Biology with more emphasis on Simple Epithelial Tissue.

This episode is setting a pace for a series of episodes that are about the same topic subtopic that u need to watch to get a complete doze of content.

May you subscribe(if you haven't), like the videos,comment and share the links with friends

Landus Mumbere Expedito
8 Views · 1 month ago

This video breaks down areolar tissue as the simplest connective tissue.please Enjoy.

Mpatswe Francis
12 Views · 1 month ago

Ibrahim Baraka always dreamed of going to school, but that wasn’t a possibility during the 12 years he spent in a Ugandan refugee camp. Now, he’s in college.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 1 month ago

In this video, we look in detail at standard enthalpy change of reaction. I discuss what this means and how to carry out the calculation. I give you two examples to try yourself before taking you through the correct answers. I also explain to you what the units of standard enthalpy change of reaction actually mean.This video is aimed at the UK A Level Chemistry specifications. Students studying International A Level Chemistry will need to check their specification.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 1 month ago

In this video, we look at how to determine the standard enthalpy change of a reaction. First I take you through the experimental procedure. I then explain to you how to correct the results to take into account heat losses from the experimental setup. Finally, I show you how to carry out the calculation.This video is aimed at the UK A Level Chemistry specifications. Students studying International A Level Chemistry will need to check their specification.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
8 Views · 1 month ago

This chemistry video tutorial focuses on the calculation of the enthalpy of a reaction using standard molar heats of formation, hess law, and calorimetry. This video contains plenty of notes, formulas / equations, examples, and practice problems to help you pass your next exam / general chemistry test on thermochemistry and thermodynamics. Here is a list of topics:

Chemistry - Basic Introduction: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KfG8kH-r3Y
Balancing Chemical Equations: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iUARzSxcKzk
Stoichiometry Practice Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mP2Yg8alyR0
Molarity Practice Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_iETsDSvkg
Net Ionic Equations: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jhNouV9TNo
Ideal Gas Law Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaZ96KaQ44c
______________________________________________________________________________________________
First Law of Thermodynamics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyOYW07-L5g
Thermochemistry Equations: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL3gCBUua4c
Internal Energy, Heat, and Work: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7s-hIoyNqY
Thermochemical Equations: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDrcHR4tSdE
Specific Vs Molar Heat Capacity: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoHXMaiwT80
Basic Calorimetry Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGcDUybbTW0
Final Temperature Calorimetry Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lxMwyxvSqgk
Latent Heat of Fusion & Vaporization: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxtz2POUTJE
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Coffee Cup Calorimeter: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XnUypVXE88
More Calorimeter Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2cMvNDRqQA
Specific Heat Capacity Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePm_N6RgLfk
Hess Law Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ixEf2zpR8E
More Hess Law Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Idv2C8HBbug
Enthalpy of Formation & Heat Combustion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FP-VYfTYi8Y
Enthalpy Practice Problems: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xe_N7WYl5BI
______________________________________________________________________________________________
Speed of Light, Frequency, & Wavelength: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgYMxH1LCdo
Photon Energy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYNSopwd1l4
The Photoelectric Effect: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LECEvusk8E
Quantum Numbers: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPptuKlCM6k
Electron Configuration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIwcDnFjj98
Periodic Trends: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gy9HR65DpYQ
Lattice Energy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I61-N0GuSx8
Lewis Structures Super Review: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PeY_sihSh8E
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdJeQUd2g_4
Molecular Orbital Theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tB6E6R_XpQ
Unit Cell Chemistry: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCWwRh5CXYU
______________________________________________________________________________________________
General Chemistry 1 Final Exam Review: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yw1YH7YA7c

Landus Mumbere Expedito
7 Views · 1 month ago

You can find all my A Level Chemistry videos fully indexed at https://www.freesciencelessons.....co.uk/a-level-revis

In this video, I explain how to determine the standard enthalpy change of combustion for a liquid fuel. First I show you the method. Then I take you through the calculation. Finally, I explain why the standard enthalpy change of combustion that we determine may be different to published values.

This video is aimed at the UK A Level Chemistry specifications. Students studying International A Level Chemistry will need to check their specification.

Image credits

Spirit Burner

https://upload.wikimedia.org/w....ikipedia/commons/9/9

Xofc, CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), via Wikimedia Commons

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 1 month ago

Hess's law, also known as the law of constant heat summation, is a fundamental principle in thermodynamics that states that the total enthalpy change for a chemical reaction is independent of the pathway taken, as long as the initial and final states are the same. In simpler terms, it doesn't matter how many steps a chemical reaction takes, the overall heat absorbed or released will always be the same.

This law is based on the concept of **enthalpy**, which is a thermodynamic property that combines a system's internal energy and the amount of work it can perform on its surroundings due to changes in pressure and volume. Enthalpy is often denoted by the symbol **H**.

Hess's law has numerous applications in chemistry, particularly in thermochemistry, which deals with the energy changes that occur during chemical reactions. It allows chemists to calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction even if it cannot be measured directly, by breaking it down into a series of simpler steps for which the enthalpy changes are known.

Here's a visual representation of Hess's law:

[Image of Hess's law diagram]

**Example:**

Consider the combustion of methane (CH₄) to form carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water (H₂O):

CH₄(g) + 2O₂(g) → CO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l) ΔH = -890.3 kJ

However, it is difficult to measure the enthalpy change for this reaction directly in a single step. Instead, we can break it down into a series of hypothetical steps for which the enthalpy changes are known:

1. Combustion of hydrogen to form water vapor:
H₂(g) + ½O₂(g) → H₂O(g) ΔH = -285.8 kJ (multiply by 2)
2. Condensation of water vapor to form liquid water:
H₂O(g) → H₂O(l) ΔH = -44.0 kJ

By summing the enthalpy changes for these two steps, we can calculate the enthalpy change for the overall combustion reaction:

ΔH = (-285.8 kJ/mol) x 2 + (-44.0 kJ/mol) = -890.6 kJ/mol

This value is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of -890.3 kJ/mol, demonstrating the validity of Hess's law.

Hess's law is a powerful tool that allows chemists to predict the enthalpy changes for a wide variety of chemical reactions, even if they cannot be measured directly. It is a cornerstone of thermochemistry and has numerous applications in fields such as chemical engineering, materials science, and environmental science.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
9 Views · 1 month ago

The dreaded Hess's cycle I hear you cry! Hopefully this video will put those Hess's demons to rest. Take a look to find out how you use a Hess's cycle and how to draw them correctly in order to work out enthalpy of reaction, combustion and formation.

Landus Mumbere Expedito
8 Views · 1 month ago

A level Chemistry

Energetics
Enthalpy Change
Exothermic and Endothermic
Reaction Profiles
Combustion
Formation
Standard Conditions
Hess' Law
Bond Energy


Physical Chemistry | Year 1

Landus Mumbere Expedito
6 Views · 1 month ago

In this video, we explore more about a unique type of animal tissue called connective tissue with more focus on the breakdown of the different types.

Please enjoy, watch other episodes, and Share with colleagues and friends

Talk to Tr OSBERT NUWARINDA
+256705353517/+256779114179
osbertnuwa94@gmail.com

Get yourself a copy of biology book written by Tr.OSBERT NUWARINDA
1. Ordinary biology Made Easy (Good biology book for research for O'level)
2. Advanced Biology Demystified vol1 &vol 2 ( With good precise but enriching content of Advanced Level Biology)

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

🤗

Mpatswe Francis
8 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
3 Views · 1 month ago

👏👏👏👏👏👏👏

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

How to comment your code

Mpatswe Francis
3 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
3 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Landus Mumbere Expedito
5 Views · 1 month ago

In this episode, we expound more on the compound Epithelial Tissue. Just watch till the end and I tell you what,! you need to watch out for the next episode is really waoo.

watch, enjoy, and share. don't forget to subscribe Incase you haven't.

@nuwarindaosbertug9724

Mpatswe Francis
4 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
8 Views · 1 month ago

⁣The HTML Style Attribute
Setting the style of an HTML element, can be done with the
style
attribute.
The HTML
style
attribute has the following syntax:

Landus Mumbere Expedito
13 Views · 1 month ago

The first week video contents.

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
8 Views · 1 month ago

Any computer network faces a tradeoff. Adding more links creates more capacity and makes the network more robust, since packets can be routed around link failures. However, links are infrastructure and therefore expensive. The internet strikes a balance between the extremes of a fully-connected (and absurdly expensive) network and a minimally-connected (but fragile) network.

Credits: Talking: Geoffrey Challen (Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo). Producing: Greg Bunyea (Undergraduate, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo).

Part of the https://www.internet-class.org online internet course. A blue Systems Research Group (https://blue.cse.buffalo.edu) production.

tebtalks
11 Views · 1 month ago

😍

tebtalks
7 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Landus Mumbere Expedito
11 Views · 1 month ago

In this episode, we breakdown glandular tissue, types, examples and look at the structures of different glands. you don't have to miss it. I know you are going to enjoy it like never before.

Next video is about connective tissue also explained in totality. Just sit and enjoy the learning.

Mpatswe Francis
8 Views · 1 month ago

😇

Mpatswe Francis
10 Views · 1 month ago

An exploration into the underlying fundamental functions, structures, and principles of rap.

Wasalu Jaco, professionally known as Lupe Fiasco, is a Chicago-born, Grammy award-winning American rapper, record producer, entrepreneur, and community advocate. Rising to fame in 2006, following the success of his debut album Food & Liquor, Lupe has released eight acclaimed studio albums, his latest being Drill Music In Zion, released in June 2022. His efforts to propagate conscious material garnered recognition as a Henry Crown Fellow, and he is a recipient of an MLK Visiting Professorship at MIT for the 2022/2023 academic year.

tebtalks
10 Views · 1 month ago

😍

Mpatswe Francis
7 Views · 1 month ago

😍

tebtalks
10 Views · 1 month ago

🏃🏃🏃🏃🏃

Mpatswe Francis
9 Views · 1 month ago

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Landus Mumbere Expedito
17 Views · 1 month ago

Investing Basics for Educators: Building Wealth for a Brighter Future


As an educator, you dedicate your life to shaping the minds of the future. But what about your own future? Investing can be a powerful tool for educators to build wealth and secure a brighter financial future.

Why should educators invest?

*Financial security: Investing can help you reach your financial goals, whether it's retirement, buying a home, or paying for your children's education.
Beat inflation: Inflation erodes the purchasing power of your money over time. Investing can help your money grow faster than inflation, protecting your purchasing power.
* **Compound interest:** The magic of compound interest is often described as "earning interest on interest." Over time, even small investments can grow significantly thanks to compound interest.
* **Early start advantage:** The earlier you start investing, the more time your money has to grow. Educators often have stable jobs and steady income, making them prime candidates for early investing.

Investing Basics for Beginners:

1. Set your financial goals:

* What are you hoping to achieve with your investments?
* Do you want to save for retirement, a down payment on a house, or your children's college education?
* Different goals will require different investment strategies.

2. Understand your risk tolerance:

* How comfortable are you with the possibility of losing money?
* Some investments are riskier than others, but they also have the potential for higher returns.
* It's important to choose investments that match your risk tolerance.

3. Diversify your portfolio:

* Don't put all your eggs in one basket!
* Spreading your investments across different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate, can help reduce your risk.

4. Invest regularly:

* Even small contributions can add up over time.
* Setting up a regular investment plan can help you stay on track.

5. Seek professional advice:

* If you're new to investing, it's a good idea to seek professional advice from a financial advisor.
* They can help you create a personalized investment plan that meets your needs and goals.

Resources for Educators:

National Education Association: The NEA offers a variety of resources on financial planning for educators, including webinars, articles, and calculators.

American Federation of Teachers: The AFT also offers resources on financial planning for educators, including a retirement calculator and investment guide.

Securities and Exchange Commission: The SEC provides investor education resources, including information on different types of investments, how to read financial statements, and how to avoid scams.

Investing can seem daunting, but it doesn't have to be. By starting early, setting realistic goals, and diversifying your portfolio, you can build a solid foundation for your financial future. As an educator, you invest in your students every day. Now, it's time to invest in yourself.

Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 1 month ago

In Russia, dozens of protesters have been arrested after clashes with riot police in the central region of Bashkortostan.

Thousands of people demonstrated in the town of Baymak after an environmental activist was sentenced to four years in prison for allegedly inciting hatred.

Police used force and tear gas to disperse protesters and several people were injured.
According to Russia’s strict anti-demonstration laws, protesters found guilty of so-called "mass-rioting" could face up to 15 years in prison.

#russia #protest #bashkortostan

Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/user/d....eutschewelleenglish?

For more news go to: http://www.dw.com/en/
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Für Videos in deutscher Sprache besuchen Sie: https://www.youtube.com/dwdeutsch
#russia #protest #putin

Mpatswe Francis
11 Views · 1 month ago

The lower house of the British parliament has passed the government's bill to send asylum seekers to Rwanda. This is a revised version of the bill. The previous one was ruled unlawful by Supreme Court last year.

UK Prime Minister Rishi Sunak's government faced down a rebellion from members of his own Conservative party who wanted the law made even tougher. The bill now moves to the House of Lords, where it is also expected to face opposition. The government wants to fly people who enter Britain illegally to Rwanda to claim asylum there instead, saying it's a fair way to deal with the influx of migrants.

For more on this, we talk to UK correspondent Charlotte Chelsom-Pill who has been following the story for us.

#uk #migrants #rwanda

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For more news go to: http://www.dw.com/en/
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Für Videos in deutscher Sprache besuchen Sie: https://www.youtube.com/dwdeutsch

Mpatswe Francis
5 Views · 1 month ago

Steve Jobs: The Exclusive Biography - https://amzn.to/3zKeTM6


Steve Jobs delivers an inspirational speech. Listen to the end for the most life changing quote of all-time. Don't let anyone ever tell you that you cannot achieve your dreams.

You will be inspired and motivated to go out there and achieve your goals. I hope you all enjoy this motivational video. :)

Speaker: Steve Jobs
Steven Paul Jobs was an American business magnate, industrial designer, investor, and media proprietor. He was the chairman, chief executive officer (CEO), and co-founder of Apple Inc.; the chairman and majority shareholder of Pixar; a member of The Walt Disney Company's board of directors following its acquisition of Pixar; and the founder, chairman, and CEO of NeXT. Jobs is widely recognized as a pioneer of the personal computer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, along with his early business partner and fellow Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak.


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Mpatswe Francis
6 Views · 1 month ago

Mia Mottley, Prime Minister of Barbados, makes a speech at the Opening of the #cop26 World Leaders Summit of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26).

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Watch more on the COP26 Channel: YouTube.com/COP26

The UN Climate Change Conference (COP 26) in Glasgow, United Kingdom is a crucial opportunity to achieve pivotal, transformational change in global climate policy and action. It is a credibility test for global efforts to address climate change and it is where Parties must make considerable progress to reach consensus on issues they have been discussing for several years. COP 26 comes against the background of widespread, rapid and intensifying climate change impacts, which are already impacting every region on Earth. Also, COP 26 comes against the background of the COVID-19 pandemic, with the urgent need to build back better for present future generations to ensure a safe future.

The UNFCCC secretariat (UN Climate Change) is the United Nations entity tasked with supporting the global response to the threat of climate change. UNFCCC stands for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Convention has near universal membership (197 Parties) and is the parent treaty of the 2015 Paris Agreement. The main aim of the Paris Agreement is to keep the global average temperature rise this century as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The UNFCCC is also the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The ultimate objective of all three agreements under the UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system, in a time frame which allows ecosystems to adapt naturally and enables sustainable development.


#cop26 #unfccc #climatechange

Mpatswe Francis
8 Views · 1 month ago

RONALD REAGAN'S Speech NO ONE Wants To Hear | Ronald Reagan Powerful Speech
Ronald Reagan is originally an American actor and politician, became the 40th President of the United States serving from 1981 to 1989. Ronald Regan's term saw a restoration of prosperity at home, with the goal of achieving “peace through strength” abroad. On February 6, 1911, Ronald Wilson Reagan was born to Nelle and John Reagan in Tampico, Illinois. Ronald Reagan attended high school in nearby Dixon and then worked his way through Eureka College. There, Ronald Reagan studied economics and sociology, played on the football team, and acted in school plays. Upon graduation, Ronald Reagan became a radio sports announcer. A screen test in 1937 won him a contract in Hollywood. During the next two decades Ronald Reagan appeared in 53 films. Hope that you will enjoy this motivational speech of Ronald Reagan. Write your thoughts down in the comment section about this motivational speech of Ronald Reagan.

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Don't waste your time watching boring and useless videos, watch these:

Donald Trump's LIFE ADVICE Will Change YOUR LIFE (MUST WATCH)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBbozf3NpJU&t=39s

Barack Obama's Speech NO ONE Wants TO HEAR (MUST WATCH)
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Donald Trump's Speech Will Change YOUR LIFE | Donald Trump Motivation part 2
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uE1jc9toaTU&t=83s

Joe Rogan's Life Advice Will Leave You SPEECHLESS (MUST WATCH)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8MUhGkQ9wI

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